The aim of this study is to investigate the probability of visual detection of fade in response to train-of-four (TOF) stimulation, double-burst stimulation3,3 (DBS(3,3)), or DBS(3,2) at the eyelid in comparison to that at the thumb.
This is a randomized single-blinded study.
The study took place at the University hospital.
Sixty adult patients underwent general anesthesia.
Patients were randomly divided into either the eyelid group (n = 30) or the thumb group (n = 30). In the eyelid group, at the varying degrees of neuromuscular block caused by vecuronium, TOF, DBS(3,3), or DBS(3,2) were given at the temporal branch of the facial nerve, and the probability of visual detection of fade in response to TOF, DBS(3,3), or DBS(3,2) was determined at the eyelid. Similarly, in the thumb group, the probability of visual detection of fade in response to TOF, DBS(3,3), or DBS(3,2) was examined at the thumb.
When the true TOF ratios were 0 to 0.60, the probability of detection of TOF fade in the eyelid group was significantly lower than in the thumb group (P < .05). At the true TOF ratios of 0.31 to 0.70, the probability of visual detection of DBS(3,3) fade in the eyelid group was significantly less than in the thumb group (P < .05). When the true TOF ratios were 0.81 to 1.00, the probability of detection of DBS(3,2) fade in the eyelid group was significantly higher than in the thumb group (P < .05).
The probability of visual detection of fade in response to TOF or DBS(3,3) is lower at the eyelid than the thumb. In contrast, DBS(3,2) fade tends to be seen more frequently at the eyelid than at the thumb.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have studied the pattern of blood flow and pharmacodynamic profile of mivacurium-induced block at the adductor pollicis and orbicularis oculi muscles. We studied 30 adult patients anaesthetized with fentanyl, thiopentone, nitrous oxide-isoflurane, and mivacurium 0.2 mg kg-1. Neuromuscular transmission was monitored with accelerometry (TOF Guard, Biometer, Denmark). Blood flow was measured at the two muscles with the use of a laser Doppler flowmeter (Laserflo BPM2, Vasamedics, USA). All patients developed 100% neuromuscular block at the adductor pollicis muscle. Mean maximum neuromuscular block at the orbicularis oculi was 96.4 (SD 3.5)% (ns). Onset time, time required for 25% and 75% recovery of the first twitch in the train-of-four (T1), and a train-of-four ratio (T4/T1) of 90% at the orbicularis oculi were respectively, mean 130.4 (SD 28.5) s, 9.1 (3.2) min, 16.2 (3.9) min and 20.2 (4.3) min and were significantly shorter than the corresponding values at the adductor pollicis: 202.7 (37.2) s, 12.9 (3.9) min, 21.1 (5.1) min and 30.8 (7.4) min. For a given T1, there was significantly less train-of-four fade (T4/T1) at the orbicularis oculi than at the adductor pollicis muscle during recovery. Blood flow was comparable at the two muscles before induction of anaesthesia. Thiopentone significantly increased thenar muscle blood flow from 2.9 (1.5) to 12.3 (6.8) ml 100 g-1 min-1, with a further increase to 22.7 (8.0) ml 100 g-1 min-1 after isoflurane (P < 0.001). Blood flow at the orbicularis oculi was not altered by thiopentone or isoflurane and was consistently lower than that at the adductor pollicis muscle. We conclude that the different pharmacodynamic profiles of mivacurium-induced block at the orbicularis oculi and adductor pollicis muscles were not related primarily to a difference in blood flows.
BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 07/1997; 79(1):24-8. DOI:10.1093/bja/79.1.24 · 4.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to establish the best position of the stimulating electrodes for facial nerve stimulation during acceleromyographic monitoring from the orbital part of the orbicularis oculi muscle.
In 59 anaesthetised patients, an acceleration transducer was positioned over the middle of the eyebrow. In 47 patients, supramaximal train-of-four (TOF) stimulation was established for four electrode pairs with different positions along the facial nerve and behind the ear. The electrode pair with the lowest, the intermediate, and the highest supramaximal stimulating current based on first response (T1) in TOF was found in each patient. A possible response from direct muscle stimulation was evaluated during complete vecuronium block. In 12 patients, supramaximal stimulation was established using a stimulation sequence different from the one used in the first part of the study.
The best positions for the stimulating electrodes were either with both electrodes just lateral to the eye, or with one electrode lateral to the eye and one in front of the ear. In most patients, supramaximal stimulation was obtained at these positions at 20-60 mA. However, in 10-21% of the patients, supramaximal stimulation could not be obtained. During complete block, 1-4 responses with a twitch height of 3-11% were recorded in 80% of the patients.
The best placements of the stimulation electrodes are either just lateral to the eye or along the zygomatic arch. However, supramaximal stimulation may often not be obtainable, and activation of other facial muscles may be a confounding factor that may impede correct evaluation of the degree of neuromuscular block.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The orbicularis oculi (OO) muscle has been recommended for neuromuscular monitoring when the adductor pollicis (AP) muscle is not available. We investigated whether neuromuscular block could be measured reliably from the orbital part of the OO muscle by the use of acceleromyography.
During propofol, fentanyl, and alfentanil anaesthesia two TOF-Guards (Organon Teknika NV, Boxtel, the Netherlands) with acceleration transducers placed on the distal phalanx of the thumb and over the middle of the eyebrow, respectively, were used to measure neuromuscular block simultaneously in 23 patients during vecuronium-induced and neostigmine-antagonized neuromuscular block. For both muscles, the simultaneously recorded first response (T1) in the train-of-four (TOF) and TOF-ratio were measured both during onset and recovery of the block. Furthermore, both the AP muscle T1 and TOF-ratio responses were plotted against 10% intervals of the OO muscle responses during onset and recovery, respectively.
The orbicularis oculi muscle had a shorter latency and a faster recovery to TOF-ratio 0.80 compared with the AP muscle. During onset and recovery, pronounced variations of the AP muscle T1 and TOF-ratio responses were observed when compared with the OO muscle.
A significant clinical disagreement exists between the degree of paralysis measured at the OO and the AP muscles. It is impossible to obtain a reasonable estimate of the degree of block at the AP muscle when the block is measured from the OO muscle with acceleromyography. If used, there is substantial risk of overlooking a residual block, and adequate recovery of the block should be confirmed by a final AP muscle measurement.
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