Tracheal width and left double-lumen tube size: a formula to estimate left-bronchial width.
ABSTRACT To determine which patient parameters best predict left bronchial width (LBW) when selecting the correct size double-lumen tube (DLT). If LBW is known, a DLT that will fit that bronchus can be chosen.
University medical center.
Three hundred twenty-one consecutive patients scheduled for thoracic surgery and for whom there was a chest radiograph and for whom tracheal width (TW) and LBW could be measured.
Tracheal width and LBW were directly measured from the chest radiograph. Patient demographic data were recorded and then analyzed to see which factor(s) best predicted LBW. Parameters often used for DLT selection (age, sex, height, and weight) as well as TW were compared by univariate and multivariate statistical analysis to see which factor(s) most accurately predicted LBW.
There were weak but significant correlations between age and height and LBW in men, and height and LBW in women. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that, for both men and women, TW was the best predictor of LBW. Sex, height, and weight did not improve predictability over TW alone. The equation that best predicts LBW for both sexes is: LBWmm = (0.50)(TWmm) + 3.7 mm. This model explains 46% of the variance in LBW. As structures measured from a chest radiograph are magnified by 10%, the formula to predict LBW, which normalizes for this magnification factor, is: LBWmm = (0.45)(TWmm(CXR)) + 3.3 mm.
Direct airway measurement is the most accurate way to select an appropriate DLT. However, when direct measurement of LBW cannot be performed, estimating LBW from TW is a better predictor of LBW than either sex, height, or weight.
- SourceAvailable from: PubMed CentralKorean journal of anesthesiology 03/2014; 66(3):181-2.
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Intensive progress in prenatal medicine results in performing airway management in the fetus affected by life-threatening congenital malformations. This study aimed to examine age-specific reference intervals and growth dynamics for length, proximal and distal external transverse diameters, and projection surface areas of the two main bronchi at varying gestational ages, including their relative growth in length and projection surface area. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using anatomical dissection, digital image analysis and statistics, length, proximal and distal external transverse diameters, and projection surface areas of the right and left main bronchi were examined in 73 human fetuses (39 males, 34 females) aged 14-25 weeks, derived from spontaneous abortions and stillbirths. RESULTS: Statistical analysis showed no sex differences. Between the 14 and 25th week of gestation, the lengths of the right and left main bronchi increased from 1.43 ± 0.18 to 3.18 ± 0.39 mm, and from 2.97 ± 0.16 to 7.58 ± 1.95 mm, in accordance with the functions: [Formula: see text], respectively. The proximal external transverse diameters of the right and left main bronchi varied from 2.13 ± 0.41 to 4.24 ± 0.20 mm, and from 1.84 ± 0.06 to 3.67 ± 0.66 mm, following the logarithmic models: [Formula: see text], respectively. The distal external transverse diameter rose from 2.09 ± 0.47 to 4.24 ± 0.20 mm, as [Formula: see text] for the right main bronchus, and from 1.85 ± 0.04 to 3.67 ± 0.66 mm, like [Formula: see text] for the left one. On either side, there were no statistically significant differences between values of the proximal and distal transverse diameters of the main bronchus. The projection surface areas of the right and left main bronchi ranged from 2.95 ± 0.19 to 13.34 ± 2.12 mm(2), and from 5.57 ± 0.21 to 28.52 ± 5.24 mm(2), as [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. The two main bronchi revealed a proportionate increase in both length and projection surface area, since the right-to-left bronchial length ratio and the right-to-left bronchial projection surface area ratio were stable, 0.41 ± 0.07 and 0.47 ± 0.08, respectively, throughout the analyzed period. CONCLUSIONS: The main bronchi show no sex differences. The right and left main bronchi grow logarithmically in length and external transverse diameter, and linearly in projection surface area. The right and left main bronchi evolve proportionately, with the right-to-left bronchial ratios of 0.41 ± 0.07 for length, and 0.47 ± 0.08 for projection surface area.Anatomia Clinica 06/2013; 36(1). · 1.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: When discovered, tracheal tears are typically managed conservatively, although larger tracheal tears generally require surgical intervention following diagnosis by fiberoptic bronchoscopy. We report on the anesthetic and surgical management of a large tracheal tear close to the carina in a young female patient and discuss airway management recommendations for such injuries. We include commentary from the cardiothoracic surgeon's and otolaryngologist's perspectives as well as a proposed algorithm to guide the diagnosis and treatment of tracheal injury.Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia 08/2014; 28(4):1149-1157. · 1.48 Impact Factor