Regional patterns of sight-threatening diabetic macular edema.
ABSTRACT To define regional patterns of macular thickening in diabetic macular edema (DME).
Retrospective case series.
Fifty-two normal eyes of 48 patients and 100 eyes of 80 patients with DME. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE: We measured retinal thickness for nine zones and total macular volume using the 3.5-mm display of an optical coherence tomograph (OCT). We determined the normal ranges of values for zones, and then normal ranges of values for the difference in thickness between each pair of zones, termed comparisons. main outcome measures: Frequencies of increased zonal thickness, increased total macular volume, and abnormalities in zonal comparisons.
We found the following abnormalities: increased total macular volume 49% (49/100), increased foveal zone thickness 46% (46/100), increased inner parafoveal zone thickness (average 42.2% for the four zones), and increased outer zone thickness (average 34.3% for the four zones). Abnormal two-zone comparisons were found in 1027 of the 7200 possible comparisons (14.3%). Of these abnormal comparisons, the fovea was thicker relative to another zone in 26%; the four inner parafoveal zones were thicker relative to other zones in 8.7% to 15.2% (average 13.0%); and the four outer zones were thicker relative to other zones in 3.9% to 7.6% (average 6%). Eighty-eight percent (88/100) of the eyes chosen on clinical grounds as needing focal laser photocoagulation were detected.
A broader concept of OCT abnormality, which includes abnormalities in zonal relationships, may improve automated detection of DME compared with clinical judgment.
- SourceAvailable from: Jay Duker[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to report normal macular thickness measurements and assess reproducibility of retinal thickness measurements acquired by a time-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) (Stratus, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc., Dublin, CA) and three commercially available spectral/Fourier domain OCT instruments (Cirrus HD-OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc.; RTVue-100, Optovue, Inc., Fremont, CA; 3D OCT-1000, Topcon, Inc., Paramus, NJ). Forty randomly selected eyes of 40 normal, healthy volunteers were imaged. Subjects were scanned twice during 1 visit and a subset of 25 was scanned again within 8 weeks. Retinal thickness measurements were automatically generated by OCT software and recorded after manual correction. Regression and Bland-Altman plots were used to compare agreement between instruments. Reproducibility was analyzed by using intraclass correlation coefficients, and incidence of artifacts was determined. Macular thickness measurements were found to have high reproducibility across all instruments with intraclass correlation coefficients values ranging 84.8% to 94.9% for Stratus OCT, 92.6% to 97.3% for Cirrus Cube, 76.4% to 93.7% for RTVue MM5, 61.1% to 96.8% for MM6, 93.1% to 97.9% for 3D OCT-1000 radial, and 31.5% to 97.5% for 3D macular scans. Incidence of artifacts was higher in spectral/Fourier domain instruments, ranging from 28.75% to 53.16%, compared with 17.46% in Stratus OCT. No significant age or sex trends were found in the measurements. Commercial spectral/Fourier domain OCT instruments provide higher speed and axial resolution than the Stratus OCT, although they vary greatly in scanning protocols and are currently limited in their analysis functions. Further development of segmentation algorithms and quantitative features are needed to assist clinicians in objective use of these newer instruments to manage diseases.Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.) 12/2009; 30(2):235-45. · 2.93 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To assess the quantitative and morphological changes of the macula in response to macular grid laser for diabetic macular oedema (DMO) using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Cirrus OCT macular cube scans of 30 eyes of 25 patients were retrospectively analysed before and 4 months after macular grid laser for diffuse DMO. The oedema was quantified and response evaluated in the nine early-treatment diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) zones of the macula. Post-laser OCT changes were compared with the baseline features, including morphology patterns, changes in both logarithmic transformed (logOCT) and standardised average macular thickness (AMT), total macular volume, number of parafoveal quadrants involved, and the presence of intact 3rd hyper-reflective band (HRB). The rate of change of retinal thickness in response to laser was maximum in the central (8.17%) and perifoveal inferior quadrants (0.04%). Diffuse retinal thickening on OCT responded best to treatment. The AMT of 300-350 μm had the worst response (+0.94%). Eyes with less than four quadrants of oedema showed good response. Disrupted HRB was associated with poor visual gain (-0.33 ETDRS letters). The topographic location of oedema on the retinal map and the morphological patterns of the oedema on OCT are useful predictors of treatment response in diffuse DMO.Eye (London, England) 04/2011; 25(7):901-8. · 1.97 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To characterize the types and frequencies of image artifacts associated with macular scanning using 2 common spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) instruments and to evaluate the impact of artifacts on foveal thickness measurements. Retrospective, observational chart review. For the Cirrus HD-OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA), scans of 98 eyes from 58 patients were included in the study. For the Spectralis HRA+OCT (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany), scans of 88 eyes from 54 patients were included. Macular volume scans of healthy and diseased eyes were evaluated systematically for image artifacts within each scan overall and within the center 1-mm area. The frequency of each artifact type was compared for scans stratified by diagnosis category. Artifacts in the center 1-mm area were graded for severity and were corrected manually using each instrument's software. Artifacts that resulted in errors of more than 50 microm or more than 10% of retinal thickness or that caused a misdiagnosis of macular edema or retinal thinning were defined as clinically significant and were analyzed further. Overall frequency of image artifacts by artifact type, relative frequency of artifacts in scans stratified by posterior segment disease diagnosis, and retinal thickness measurements of the center 1-mm subfield before and after artifact corrections. For Cirrus, 84.7% of scans had artifacts and 32.7% had at least 1 artifact in the center 1-mm area of the scan. For Spectralis, 90.9% of scans had at least 1 artifact, and 37.5% had at least 1 artifact in the center 1-mm area. Certain artifact types were observed more frequently with specific disease states. Clinically significant artifacts involving the center 1-mm area were seen in 5.1% of Cirrus and 8.0% of Spectralis scans. Image artifacts in SD OCT volume scanning are common and frequently involve segmentation errors. Artifacts are relatively less common in the center 1-mm area of scans, but may affect retinal thickness measurements in a clinically significant manner. Careful review of scans for artifacts is important when using SD OCT images and retinal thickness measurements in patient care or clinical trials.Ophthalmology 02/2010; 117(6):1177-1189.e4. · 5.56 Impact Factor