Prevalence and risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome and dyslipidemia in White, Black, Amerindian and Mixed Hispanics in Zulia State, Venezuela.
ABSTRACT Studies have highlighted the association between insulin resistance (IR) and several cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, including hypertension (HTN), obesity, dyslipidemia (i.e. high triglyceride and low HDL-cholesterol) and glucose intolerance, in a cluster known as the metabolic syndrome (MS). There are few data on the frequency of the MS and dyslipidemia in developing countries, and none in South America. To estimate the prevalence of the MS and its components in Zulia State, Venezuela, and to establish associated demographic and clinical factors, we evaluated 3108 Hispanic men and women aged 20 years or older from a cross-sectional survey of a random representative sample from each health district in Zulia State, Venezuela (1999-2001). Prevalence of the MS and dyslipidemia was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)/Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. The age-adjusted prevalence of MS and dyslipidemia was 31.2% and 24.1%, respectively, with higher rates in men than in women. Prevalence rates increased with age and with the degree of obesity. MS prevalence was lower in Amerindian (17.%) compared to Black (27.2%), White (33.3%) and Mixed (37.4%) men, but no differences were found among women. Overall, low HDL-cholesterol (65.3%), abdominal obesity (42.9%) and HTN (38.1%) were the most frequent MS components. After adjusting for age, sex and race groups, family history of diabetes, obesity and HTN were associated with the MS. Sedentary lifestyle also increased the risk of MS, event after adjusting for the same covariates, obesity and the degree of IR. These results suggest that MS is found in approximately one-third of the Venezuelan adult population in Zulia State, with higher prevalence in men related to the presence of dyslipidemia. Lifestyle interventions in MS subjects are needed in Venezuela to halt the burden of CV disease and diabetes.
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ABSTRACT: Limited knowledge on the prevalence and distribution of risk factors impairs the planning and implementation of cardiovascular prevention programs in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region. Prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, abnormal lipoprotein levels, obesity, and smoking were estimated from individual-level patient data pooled from population-based surveys (1998-2007, n = 31,009) from eight LAC countries and from a national survey of the United States (US) population (1999-2004) Age and gender specific prevalence were estimated and age-gender adjusted comparisons between both populations were conducted. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol in LAC were 5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 3.4, 7.9), 20.2% (95% CI: 12.5, 31), and 53.3% (95% CI: 47, 63.4), respectively. Compared to LAC region's average, the prevalence of each risk factor tended to be lower in Peru and higher in Chile. LAC women had higher prevalence of obesity and low HDL-cholesterol than men. Obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia were more prevalent in the US population than in LAC population (31 vs. 16.1%, 16.8 vs. 8.9%, and 36.2 vs. 26.5%, respectively). However, the prevalence of low HDL-cholesterol was higher in LAC than in the US (53.3 vs. 33.7%). Major cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent in LAC region, in particular low HDL-cholesterol. In addition, marked differences do exist in this prevalence profile between LAC and the US. The observed patterns of obesity-related risk factors and their current and future impact on the burden of cardiovascular diseases remain to be explained.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e54056. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It has recently been recommended that sedentary behavior be defined as sitting or reclining activities expending less than 1.5 metabolic equivalents (METs), which is distinct from the traditional viewpoint based on insufficient moderate-vigorous activity or formal exercise. This study was designed to determine the energy expenditure associated with common sedentary behaviors. Twenty-five African American adults (BMI 27.8±5.5) participated in the metabolic chamber study. Participants entered the metabolic chamber in the morning and their basal metabolic rate was estimated. They were fed breakfast and then engaged in four different sedentary behaviors sequentially, lasting 30 minutes each. The activities included reclining, watching TV, reading, and typing on a computer. In the afternoon, the participants were fed lunch and then the activities were repeated. The results show that the energy expenditure values between the morning and afternoon sessions were not significantly different (p = .232). The mean energy expenditure of postprandial reclining (0.97 METs) was slightly, but significantly, lower than postprandial watching TV (p = .021) and typing (p<.001). There were no differences in energy cost (1.03-1.06 METs) between the seated (i.e., reading, typing, watching TV) sedentary activities. The energy expenditure of several common sedentary behaviors was approximately 1.0 METs in the postprandial state. The results support the conclusion that the average energy cost of common sedentary behaviors is narrowly banded around 1.0 METs in the postprandial state.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e63171. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has increased in developing countries in recent decades. This syndrome, a clustering of metabolic abnormalities, has been correlated to various socioeconomic and behavioral variables. We investigated the prevalence and prevalence ratios (PR) of MetS and related factors in an adult population of the Federal District (FD) of Brazil, which is located in the central region of the country. A cross-sectional, population-based study conducted in 2007, with 2130 adults (aged 18 years or older) in the FD of Brazil. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the recently harmonized criteria. The prevalence of MetS and PR were estimated for each sex according to the diagnostic components and the overall contribution of the selected correlates. The overall prevalence of MetS was 32.0% (95%CI: 28.9-35.2), with no gender difference. The single component with the greatest contribution to the diagnosis of MetS was hypertension in men (PR 5.10, 95%CI: 3.17-8.22) and high waist circumference in women (PR 5.02, 95%CI: 3.77-6.69). The prevalence of MetS increased significantly and progressively with age and excess weight. In women, higher education was protective against MetS (PR 0.66, 95%CI: 0.49-0.89) compared to 8 or less years of education. There was no association between the prevalence of MetS and behavioral variables studied. This study provides comprehensive and alarming data about the prevalence of MetS among the adult population of Brazil's FD. The results suggest that reducing education inequalities may be an important public policy goal to improve health outcomes, especially among women.Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome 05/2012; 4(1):20. · 1.92 Impact Factor