Intentional and unintentional nonadherence to antihypertensive medication.
ABSTRACT Hypertension is poorly controlled in the US due to medication nonadherence. Recent evidence suggests that nonadherence can be classified as intentional or unintentional and different patient characteristics, such as the experience of adverse effects, may be associated with each.
To examine associations between patient characteristics, including reported adverse effects, and both intentional and unintentional nonadherence among 588 hypertensive patients.
Baseline data from a clinical trial, the Veterans' Study To Improve the Control of Hypertension, were examined. Intentional and unintentional nonadherence were assessed using a self-report measure. Participants were presented with a list of adverse effects commonly associated with antihypertensive medication and asked to indicate which symptoms they had experienced. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine adjusted associations between patient characteristics and type of nonadherence.
Approximately 31% of patients reported unintentional nonadherence and 9% reported intentional nonadherence. Non-white participants, individuals without diabetes mellitus, and individuals reporting > or = 5 adverse effects were more likely to report intentional nonadherence than their counterparts. Individuals with less than a 10th-grade education and non-white participants were more likely to report unintentional nonadherence than their counterparts. When symptoms of increased urination and wheezing/shortness of breath were reported, patients were more likely to report intentional and unintentional nonadherence compared with those who were adherent. Unintentional nonadherence was also associated with reports of dizziness and rapid pulse.
Both intentional and unintentional nonadherence are common and related to perceived adverse effects. Furthermore, different interventions may be necessary to improve adherence in unintentionally and intentionally nonadherent patients.
European Heart Journal 02/2011; 32(3):264-8. · 10.48 Impact Factor
Article: Toward identifying the causes and combinations of causes increasing the risks of nonadherence to medical regimens: combined results of two German self-report surveys.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study aimed to identify the causes of the nonadherence (NA) of German patients to their prescribed medication. In the course of the investigation, the NA risk profiles resulting from the combination of the various causes were identified. Two cross-sectional surveys with a total of 1517 patients (comprising 1177 patients contacted by telephone and forming survey 1 and a different set of 340 patients interviewed in-depth and face-to-face forming survey 2) were conducted. Self-reported NA was measured by the generic Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS). Survey 1 used a four-item MMAS and Survey 2 an eight-item MMAS. Approximately 35% to 40% of the patients can be described as nonadherent. In survey 1, a few causes explain the NA (chronic disease, younger age, and fewer medications required to be taken). The more detailed survey 2 shows that the existence of intentional NA has considerably more influence than any other causal factors. Positive medication beliefs, a positive mood, and a good patient-doctor relationship reduce the NA risk. Furthermore, patients who are easily able to recognize the correct medication, as evidenced by ability to correctly identify the packaging, have a reduced NA probability. Concerning additive risk, patients who are chronically ill but display no other causes of risk have an NA probability of 10.4%. By contrast, in patients displaying all the identified causes of risk, the rate increases to 93.9%. About one-third of patients can be classified as nonadherent. Intentional/medication-based NA causal factors explain the NA considerably better than do socioeconomics. The existence of more than one cause of risk considerably increases the NA risk of a patient.Value in Health 12/2011; 14(8):1092-100. · 2.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Unsatisfactory compliance in the treatment of high blood pressure is frequently due to sequential barriers, such as insufficient patient education about the illness and low motivation to receive any treatment, existence of a large gap between physicians' perceptions of the problem and clinical reality, complexity of the treatment potentially generating adverse effects, and a health care environment with few public education campaigns and incentives for better coordi-nated supportive care. In order to improve drug compliance, establishment of personalized plans adapted to each patient is required. First, a good doctor–patient relationship is mandatory, with regular education of the patient about hypertension and its risks, discussion about adverse drug effects, and the complexity and cost of treatment. Second, to have any chance of success, the provider should offer convenient appointments and tailor the treatment regimen to the patient's lifestyle and needs, with written instructions. Third, there is a need to promote active patient collaboration with treatment. An innovative combination of home self-measurement of blood pressure, use of new technology options, eg, texting or telemedicine, and creation of a multi-disciplinary working team can offer new, effective opportunities. This approach could reduce cardiovascular complications by improving the control of high blood pressure, and thereby the overall costs of hypertension to the health care system.Research Reports in Clinical Cardiology. 01/2011;