Doppler estimation of left ventricular filling pressures in patients with mitral valve disease.

Section of Cardiology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.
Circulation (Impact Factor: 14.95). 07/2005; 111(24):3281-9. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.104.508812
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Conventional Doppler measurements have limitations in the prediction of left atrial pressure (LAP) in patients with mitral valve disease (MVD), given the confounding effect of valve area, left ventricular (LV) relaxation, and stiffness. However, the time interval between the onset of early diastolic mitral inflow velocity (E) and annular early diastolic velocity (Ea) by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), T(E-Ea), which is well related to the time constant of LV relaxation (tau) in canine and clinical studies, is not subject to these variables. We therefore undertook this study to test its usefulness in a patient population.
Two-dimensional Doppler and TDI echocardiography were performed simultaneously with right-heart catheterization in 51 consecutive patients (mean+/-SD age, 64+/-11 years) with MVD: 35 with moderately severe to severe mitral regurgitation (MR) and 16 with moderate to severe mitral stenosis (MS). Among several Doppler measurements, only the mitral E/A ratio, isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT), and pulmonary venous Ar duration had significant relations with mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP). The ratio of IVRT to T(E-Ea) (for MR, r=-0.92; for MS, r=-0.88; both P<0.001) and the ratio of IVRT to tau (for MR, r=-0.74; for MS, r=-0.85; both P<0.001) had the best correlations with PCWP. In 54 repeat studies, including those performed after MV repair or replacement, these ratios tracked well the changes in PCWP and readily identified changes in mean PCWP by > or =5 mm Hg. A similar correlation was noted in 13 patients with atrial fibrillation (r=-0.92, P<0.01) and in a prospective group of 14 patients with MR (r=-0.93, P<0.001).
The ratio of IVRT to T(E-Ea) or to tau can be readily applied for estimating mean PCWP in patients with MVD and can track changes in PCWP after valve surgery.

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    ABSTRACT: The ratio of early diastolic transmitral velocity to TDI mitral annular early diastolic velocity (E/e') is used to estimate left ventricular (LV) filling pressures at rest. However, there are only limited data that validate its use during exercise. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to test the ability of E/e' to estimate pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) during symptom-limited exercise in patients with LV systolic dysfunction. Forty patients with severe LV dysfunction and heart failure symptoms (54±12 years, 28 men) underwent simultaneous Doppler assessment of E/e' and right sided heart catheterization at rest and during a symptom-limited exercise test, at steady state levels of 30%, 60%, and 90% of their maximal exercise capacity. During exercise, all 40 patients successfully completed stage 1, yielding 40 pairs of data for comparison. Eighteen patients also successfully completed stage 2, and 5 patients also made it through stage 3, yielding 23 additional data pairs. In total, there were thus 63 pairs of data available during exercise. With exercise, heart rate increased from 77+/-14 to 112+/-21 bpm. Resting septal E/e' correlated well with PCWP at rest (r=0.75, p<0.01). Rest PCWP also correlated with resting mitral deceleration time (r=0.32, p<0.01) and with the transmitral E/A ratio (r=0.74, p< 0.01). During exercise, the correlation between septal E/e' and PCWP was weaker (r=0.57, p<0.01) and was shifted to the right. This rightward shift was observed in patients with both separated or merged E and A velocities. In conclusion, patient with severe LV dysfunction, while E/e' allows accurate estimation of PCWP at rest, it appears less reliable to estimate LV filing pressure during exercise.
    The American journal of cardiology 06/2014; · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Volume overload in chronic severe mitral regurgitation (MR) causes left atrial (LA) remodeling. Volume overload generally diminishes after mitral valve surgery and LA size and shape are expected to recover. The recovery of LA functions named as reverse remodeling is said to be related with prognosis and mortality. A few clinical and echocardiographic parameters have been reported to be associated with LA reverse remodeling. In this study, we investigated the relationship between LA peak longitudinal strain (reservoir strain) assessed with 2-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D STE) and LA reverse remodeling. 53 patients (24 females and 29 males, mean age: 45.7 ± 13.5 years) with severe MR and preserved left ventricular systolic function were included in the study. All patients had normal sinus rhythm. The etiology of MR was mitral valve prolapse (MVP) in 37 patients and rheumatic valvular disease in 16 patients. Mitral valve repair was performed in 30 patients while 23 underwent mitral valve replacement. Echocardiography was performed before the surgery and 6 months later. LA peak atrial longitudinal strain (PALS) was assessed with speckle tracking imaging. LA reverse remodeling was defined as a percent of decrease in LA volume index (LAVI). Left atrial volume index significantly decreased after surgery (58.2 ± 16.6 vs. 43.9 ± 17.2 ml/m(2), p ≤ 0.001). Mean LAVI reduction was 22.5 ± 27.2 %. There was no significant difference in LAVI reduction between mitral repair and replacement groups (22.1 ± 22.6 vs. 23.1 ± 32.8 %, p = 0.9). Although the decrease in LAVI was higher in MVP group than rheumatic group, it was not statistically significant (24.4 ± 26.8 vs. 18.2 ± 28.9 %, p = 0.4). Correlates of LAVI reduction were preoperative LAVI (r 0.28, p = 0.039), PALS (r 0.36, p = 0.001) and age (r -0.36, p = 0.007). Furthermore, in multivariate linear regression analysis (entering models), preoperative LAVI, age and PALS were all significant predictors of LA reverse remodeling (p ≤ 0.001, p = 0.04, p = 0.001 respectively). Left atrial peak longitudinal strain measured by 2D STE, in conjunction with preoperative LAVI and age is a predictor of LA reverse remodeling in patients undergoing surgery for severe MR. We suggest that in this patient population, PALS may also be used as a preoperative prognostic marker.
    The international journal of cardiovascular imaging 04/2014; · 2.15 Impact Factor
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