Androgen receptor CAGn repeat length influences phenotype of 47,XXY (Klinefelter) syndrome.
ABSTRACT Klinefelter syndrome (KS; 47,XXY karyotype and variants) is characterized by tall stature and testicular failure, with marked variation in severity of the phenotype. Previous studies have proposed that genetic factors including mosaicism, parental origin of the supernumerary X-chromosome, skewed X inactivation, and androgen receptor (AR) polyglutamine repeat length may contribute to phenotypic variability in KS.
The objective of this study was to investigate the roles of these genetic factors in the variability of the KS phenotype.
This was a cross-sectional study.
The study was performed at a pediatric endocrinology referral clinic.
Thirty-five KS boys and men, aged 0.1-39 yr, were studied. Interventions: There were no interventions.
Auxological measurements, biological indices of testicular function, and clinical assessment of muscle tone were the main outcome measures. Genetic studies included karyotyping to detect mosaicism, genotyping of microsatellite markers to determine parental origin of the supernumerary X-chromosome, and genotyping and methylation studies to measure AR polyglutamine (AR CAGn) repeat length and X inactivation ratio.
The only genetic factor that significantly influenced the KS phenotype was the AR CAGn repeat length, which was inversely correlated with penile length, a biological indicator of early androgen action. Mosaicism, imprinting, and skewed X inactivation did not account for the variability of the KS phenotype.
Normal genetic variation in the AR coding sequence may be clinically significant in the setting of early testicular failure and subnormal circulating testosterone levels, as occur in KS.
- SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Clinical and experimental evidence support a role for gonadal steroids in modulating the expression and course of autoimmune diseases such as lupus. Whether inherited variation in sensitivity to circulating androgenic hormones could influence the manifestations of such disease is, however, unknown. We sought to determine whether differences in androgen sensitivity conferred by variation in the exon 1 CAG repeat region of the Androgen Receptor (AR) gene were associated with differences in the clinical or humoral immune manifestations of lupus in a cohort of female subjects. We found that shorter AR CAG repeat lengths in lupus subjects correlated with higher SLEDAI score, higher ANA levels, and expression of a broader array of IgG autoantibodies. Our findings of more severe clinical manifestations and more exuberant humoral autoimmunity in women with shorter AR exon 1 CAG repeat length suggests a role for genetically determined sensitivity to androgens as a modulator of autoimmune processes.Endocrine connections. 04/2014;
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: STUDY QUESTION: Is fertility preservation feasible after the onset of puberty in adolescents with Klinefelter syndrome (KS)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Fertility preservation counseling should be an integral part of the care of XXY adolescents. Frozen ejaculated or testicular spermatozoa and even frozen immature germ cells can give them the potential to conceive their genetic progeny. However, no biological or clinical parameters were predictive of mature or immature germ cell retrieval. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: KS is the commonest sex chromosome disorder observed in azoospermic infertile males. Testicular sperm extraction success decreases with age and after testosterone therapy. Arguably, spermatozoa should be retrieved from KS males at the onset of puberty and before testosterone therapy to increase the chance of success. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A retrospective study was performed in eight KS adolescents, aged between 15 and 17 years, who were referred for counseling about their future fertility to the center CECOS (Centre d'Etude et de Conservation des Oeufs et du Sperme humain) at Rouen University Hospital between October 2008 and December 2011. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The patients were first seen with their parents and then separately. It was proposed to them that they should provide a semen sample, if this was azoospermic, two other semen samples spaced by 3 months were collected. If azoospermia was confirmed, a bilateral testicular biopsy was proposed for sperm retrieval and testicular tissue preservation. Each adolescent met the psychologist before undergoing testicular biopsy. Paraffin-embedded testicular tissue was evaluated after staining with hematoxylin-eosin and saffron and immunostaining using vimentin, anti-Müllerian hormone, androgen receptor and MAGE-A4 antibodies. Sertoli cell maturity, germ cell identification and lamina propria alteration were assessed on seminiferous tubules. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: KS adolescents were not deeply concerned about their future fertility and only became involved in the process of fertility preservation after at least three medical consultations. The parents agreed immediately that fertility preservation should be attempted. Seven non-mosaic XXY adolescents presented with azoospermia and one XXY/XY adolescent had oligozoospermia. Increased plasma levels of FSH and LH as well as bilateral testicular hypotrophy were observed in all patients. The XXY/XY adolescent banked four semen samples before testosterone replacement therapy. Two patients refused testicular biopsy. Five patients accepted a bilateral testicular biopsy. Spermatozoa were retrieved in one patient, elongated spermatids and spermatocytes I in a second patient. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The number of patients enrolled in our study was low because the diagnosis of KS is only rarely made before or at the onset of puberty. Most XXY males are diagnosed in adulthood within the context of male infertility. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Spermatozoa can be retrieved in semen sample and in testicular tissue of adolescent Klinefelter patients. Furthermore, the testis may also harbor spermatogonia and incompletely differentiated germ cells. However, the physician should discuss with the patient and his parents over a period of several months before collecting a semen sample and performing bilateral testicular biopsy. Fertility preservation might best be proposed to adolescent Klinefelter patients just after the onset of puberty when it is possible to collect a semen sample and when the patient is able to consider alternative options to achieve fatherhood and also to accept the failure of spermatozoa or immature germ cell retrieval. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This work was supported by Rouen University Hospital and grant from the University of Rouen dedicated to the research team 'Gametogenesis and gamete quality'. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Not applicable.Human Reproduction 03/2013; · 4.67 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Sotos syndrome (SoS, OMIM#117550) is an overgrowth disorder characterized by excessive growth-especially in the first years of childhood-distinctive craniofacial features, and various degrees of mental retardation. Haploinsufficiency of the nuclear receptor binding SET domain containing protein 1 (NSD1) gene, due to either intragenic mutations or whole-gene microdeletions, is found in the majority of patients with SoS. However, in approximately 10-40% of patients with a typical SoS phenotype, no abnormalities are detected. In this study, hemizygous hypermethylation or genomic sequence abnormalities of the promoter region of NSD1 were hypothesized to be the underlying cause in patients with a SoS phenotype, but without confirmed NSD1 alterations. In 18 patients, including one patient with a reported hepatocellular carcinoma, the promoter region of NSD1 was analyzed. However, no hypermethylation or sequence abnormalities in the promoter region could be detected. It therefore seems unlikely that such abnormalities of NSD1 are a major culprit in patients with phenotypical SoS. Additional methods are necessary for detection of other genetic or epigenetic causes of SoS.Journal of Human Genetics 02/2006; 51(1):15-20. · 2.37 Impact Factor