Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the matrix metalloproteinase-1 promoter with glioblastoma.
ABSTRACT A key feature in the malignant behavior of glioblastoma is the tendency to invade host brain tissue surrounding the primary tumor site. Several members of the matrix metalloproteinase family are thought to contribute to this invasive capacity. A single nucleotide polymorphism has been described in the matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) promoter that consists of either the presence or absence of a guanine nucleotide at position -1607. The presence of the guanine base creates a functional binding site for members of the ETS family of transcription factors and has been shown to increase MMP-1 transcription. The purpose of our study was to characterize this polymorphism in human glioblastoma. Promoter genotyping was performed on brain tumor tissue obtained from 81 patients and compared to 57 healthy individuals. The 2G/2G genotype is more prevalent in glioblastoma tissue compared to healthy individuals (p = 0.01). mRNA and protein expression were measured in a subset of brain tumor and normal brain tissue samples. MMP-1 protein levels are significantly higher in glioblastoma tissue compared to normal brain (p = 0.001). Electromobility shift assays and promoter assays were performed to assess binding capability and transcriptional activity, respectively. Proteins present in glioma cell lines can specifically bind the 2G promoter probe. MMP-1 transcription is significantly higher in cells transfected with the 2G promoter when compared to cells transfected with the 1G promoter (p<0.02). This polymorphism may provide a mechanism for increased expression of MMP-1 in malignant gliomas via elevation of MMP-1 mRNA transcription and may underlie the invasive phenotype.
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ABSTRACT: The role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP's) and their inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), in human brain tumor invasion was investigated. Gelatinolytic activity was assayed via gelatin zymography, and four MMP's (MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, and MMP-9) and TIMP-1 were immunolocalized in human brain tumors and in normal brain tissues using monoclonal antibodies. The tissue was surgically removed from 44 patients: glioblastoma (five cases), anaplastic astrocytoma (six cases), astrocytoma (four cases), metastatic tumor (six cases), neurinoma (10 cases), meningioma (10 cases), and normal brain tissue (three cases). Glioblastomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, and metastatic tumors showed high gelatinolytic activity and positive immunostaining for MMP's; TIMP-1 was also expressed in these tumors, but some tumor cells were negative for the antibody. Astrocytomas had low gelatinolytic activity and the tumor cells showed no immunoreactivity for MMP's and TIMP-1. Although neurinomas and meningiomas had only moderate proteinase activity and exhibited positive immunoreactivity for MMP-9, intense expression of TIMP-1 was simultaneously observed in these tumor cells. These findings suggest that MMP's play an important role in human brain tumor invasion, probably due to an imbalance between the production of MMP's and TIMP-1 by the tumor cells.Journal of Neurosurgery 08/1994; 81(1):69-77. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that the 2G allele of a guanine insertion-deletion promoter polymorphism in the promoter of the matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP1) gene may increase susceptibility to ovarian cancer. The 2G allele also has been associated with increased MMP1 expression. We investigated the relationship between the MMP1 polymorphism and ovarian cancer risk in a large population-based, case-control study. The MMP1 promoter polymorphism was examined in white blood cell DNA from 311 cases and 387 age- and race-matched controls using a radiolabeled polymerase chain reaction assay. In addition, genotyping of the MMP1 polymorphism performed in 42 advanced-stage invasive serous ovarian cancers was compared to their mean relative MMP1 expression from Affymetrix microarrays. The 2G allele frequency did not differ significantly between cases (0.49) and controls (0.48), and the distribution of genotypes was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Using 1G homozygotes as the reference group, neither 2G homozygotes (odds ratio 1.1, 95% confidence interval 0.7-1.7) nor heterozygotes plus 2G homozygotes (odds ratio 0.9, 95% confidence interval 0.7-1.3) had an increased risk of ovarian cancer. There was also no relationship between MMP1 genotype and histologic grade, histologic type, stage, or tumor behavior (borderline versus invasive). The mean MMP1 expression was twice as high in 2G homozygotes relative to 1G homozygotes, but this difference was not statistically significant. The reported association between the MMP1 promoter polymorphism and ovarian cancer risk was not supported by our data. There was a suggestion that the 2G allele may be associated with higher MMP1 expression, and this finding is worthy of further investigation.Journal of the Society for Gynecologic Investigation 10/2003; 10(6):381-7. · 2.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies show that the p53 tumor suppressor protein is overexpressed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovium and that somatic mutations previously identified in human tumors are present in RA synovium (Firestein, G. S., Echeverri, F., Yeo, M., Zvaifler, N. J., and Green, D. R. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 94, 10895-10900; Firestein, G. S., Nguyen, K., Aupperle, K. R., Yeo, M., Boyle, D. L., and Zvaifler, N. J. (1996) Am. J. Pathol. 149, 2143-2151; Reme, T., Travaglio, A., Gueydon, E., Adla, L., Jorgensen, C., and Sany, J. (1998) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 111, 353-3581). We hypothesize that the abnormality of p53 seen in RA synovium may contribute to joint degeneration through the regulation of human matrix metalloproteinase-1 (hMMP-1, collagenase-1) gene expression. Transcription assays were performed with luciferase reporters driven by the promoter of the hMMP-1 gene or by a minimal promoter containing tandem repeats of the consensus binding sequence for activator protein-1, cotransfected with p53-expressing plasmids. The results revealed that (i) wild-type (wt) p53 down-regulated the promoter activity of hMMP-1 in a dose-dependent fashion; (ii) four of six p53 mutants (commonly found in human cancers) lost this repression activity; and (iii) this p53 repression activity was mediated at least in part by the activator protein-1 sites found in the hMMP-1 promoter. These findings were further confirmed by Northern analysis. The down-regulation of hMMP-1 gene expression by endogenous wt-p53 was shown by treatment of U2-OS cells, a wt-p53-containing osteogenic sarcoma line, and Saos-2 cells, a p53-negative osteogenic sarcoma line, with etoposide, a potent inducer of p53 expression. p53, activated by etoposide, appears to block hMMP-1 promoter activity induced by etoposide in U2-OS cells. In summary, we have shown for the first time that the hMMP-1 gene is a p53 target gene, subject to p53 repression. Because MMP-1 is principally responsible for the irreversible destruction of collagen in articular tissue in RA, abnormality of p53 may contribute to joint degeneration through the regulation of MMP-1 expression.Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/1999; 274(17):11535-40. · 4.65 Impact Factor
William C Broaddus