Increased monocyte transcription of the proteinase 3 gene in small vessel vasculitis.

Department of Nephrology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
Clinical & Experimental Immunology (Impact Factor: 3.28). 08/2005; 141(1):174-82. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2005.02819.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Proteinase 3 (PR3) is a pleiotropic and destructive serine protease and it is also a major target for autoantibodies in systemic small vessel vasculitis. We have shown recently that patients in stable remission have increased circulating levels of PR3, independent of autoantibody titre, inflammation, neutrophil degranulation and renal function. Here we explore the possibility of increased PR3 gene transcription. RNA was purified from peripheral blood monocytes from vasculitis patients and controls. Specific mRNA was measured by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The monocyte-like cell lines THP-1 and U937 and human peripheral blod monocytes from healthy controls were stimulated with cytokines and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for different time periods. PR3 protein was measured in plasma with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The median result for PR3 mRNA was 9.6 (1.8-680) for 22 patients, compared to 1 (0.1-2.8) for the 15 healthy controls. Elastase expression was also significantly increased, whereas myeloperoxidase and interleukin-8 were not. Stimulation of monocytes with tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interferon (IFN)-gamma or LPS did not result in any increase of PR3 or elastase transcription, whereas interleukin (IL)-8 transcription was increased 10-fold. Circulating monocytes from patients with systemic vasculitis display increased PR3 gene transcription compared to healthy controls and patients with sytemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This may be important for the development of vasculitis. Our results do not favour a role for cytokines, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) or immunosuppressive medication in the upregulation of PR3 transcription in vasculitis.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A myelopoiesis gene signature in circulating leucocytes, exemplified by increased myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proteinase 3 (PR3) mRNA levels, has been reported in patients with active anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody associated vasculitis (AAV) and to a lesser extent during remission. We hypothesized that this signature could predict disease relapse. mRNA levels of PR3, MPO, selected myelopoiesis transcription factors (CEBPA, CEBPB, SPIB, SPI1) and microRNAs (miRNAs) from patient and control peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) were analyzed and associated with clinical data. Patients in stable remission had higher mRNA levels for PR3 (PBMCs, PMNs) and MPO (PBMCs). PR3 and SPIB mRNA correlated positively in control but negatively in patient PBMCs. Statistically significant correlations existed between PR3 mRNA and several miRNAs in controls, but not in patients. PR3/MPO mRNA levels were not associated with previous or future relapses but correlated to steroid treatment. Prednisolone doses were negatively linked to SPIB and miR-155-5p, miR-339-5p (PBMCs) and to miR-221, miR-361, miR-505 (PMNs). PR3 mRNA in PBMCs correlated with time since last flare, blood leucocyte count and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Our results show that elevated leucocyte PR3 mRNA levels in AAV patients in remission do not predict relapse. The origin seems multifactorial, but to an important part explainable by prednisolone action. Gene signatures in patients with AAV undergoing steroid treatment should therefore be interpreted accordingly.
    Clinical & Experimental Immunology 11/2013; · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: B cells and their progeny that produce and release anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) are the primary cause for an aggressive form of necrotizing small vessel vasculitis. Cytoplasmic ANCA antigens are released at the surface and in the microenvironment of cytokine-primed neutrophils. Binding of ANCA to ANCA antigens activates neutrophils by both Fc receptor engagement and direct Fab'2 binding to antigen on the cell surface. ANCA-activated neutrophils release factors that induce alternative complement pathway activation, which establishes a potent inflammatory amplification loop that causes severe necrotizing vascular inflammation. The origin of the ANCA autoimmune response is unknown but appears to involve genetically determined HLA specificities that allow the autoimmune response to develop. One putative immunogenic mechanism begins with an immune response to a peptide that is complementary to the autoantigen and evolves through an anti-idiotypic network to produce autoantibodies to the autoantigen. Another putative immunogenic mechanism begins with an immune response to a microbe-derived molecular mimic of the autoantigen resulting in antibodies that cross-react with the autoantigen. Release of neutrophil extracellular traps, apoptosis, and increased granule protein expression of ANCA antigens may facilitate the initiation of an ANCA autoimmune response, augment established pathogenic ANCA production, or both. The ANCA B cell autoimmune response is facilitated by quantitatively and qualitatively impaired T cell and B cell suppression and by release from activated neutrophils of B cell-activating factors that enhance B cell proliferation and retard B cell apoptosis.
    Seminars in Immunopathology 04/2014; · 5.38 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) (GPA) is a multisystem disease of unknown etiology, characterized by granulomata of the respiratory tract and systemic necrotizing vasculitis. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) with specificity for proteinase 3 (PR3) are a defining feature of this disease. GPA usually starts as a granulomatous disease of the respiratory tract and, in the majority of patients, progresses to systemic disease with PR3-ANCA-associated vasculitis. Today, epidemiological evidence indicates that GPA develops as a result of complex gene-environment interactions. The nature of these risk factors and pathogenic mechanisms involved, however, are only just beginning to be understood. Clinical data and in vitro experimental results point to the pathogenic pathways involved in tissue lesion development, in which ANCA, cellular immunity, neutrophils extracellular traps, fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells and inflammatory mediators play a major role. Today, the pathophysiological significance of PR3-ANCA is still unclear and the pathogenic pathways leading to granuloma formation are not explained. New data unexpectedly suggest that the destruction of nasal cartilage in GPA is mainly mediated by fibroblasts that can be blocked by corticosteroids.
    Expert Review of Clinical Immunology 07/2013; 9(7):641-8. · 3.34 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 22, 2014