Multiple drug class-wide resistance associated with poorer survival after treatment failure in a cohort of HIV-infected patients.
ABSTRACT To evaluate the effect of drug class-wide resistance (CWR) on survival in HIV-infected individuals who underwent genotypic resistance test after antiretroviral failure.
Observational, longitudinal cohort study.
HIV-infected individuals experiencing treatment failure were enrolled at first genotypic resistance test. End-points were death for any cause, AIDS-related death and AIDS-defining event/death. CWR was defined according to the International AIDS Society consensus. Survival analysis was performed with Cox's model.
Among 623 patients enrolled and followed for a median of 19 months (interquartile range, 12-29), Kaplan-Meier analyses for end-points at 48 months in patients with no CWR, one CWR, two CWR or three CWR were 8.9, 11.7, 13.4 and 27.1%, respectively, for death; 6.1, 9.9, 13.4 and 21.5%, respectively, for AIDS-related death; and 16.0, 17.7, 19.3 and 35.9%, respectively, for new AIDS event/death. In a multivariate Cox's model, higher HIV RNA level, previous AIDS and detection of three CWR (hazard ratio, 5.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.76-16.24) were all significantly associated with increased risk of death, while higher CD4 cell count and use of a new boosted protease inhibitor drug after identifying genotypic resistance were associated with reduced risk. Detection of three CWR was also significantly associated with higher risk of AIDS-related death and new AIDS event/death.
Even in the late era of highly effective antiretroviral treatments, detection of CWR, particularly if extended to all three drug classes is related to poorer clinical outcome and represents a risk-marker of disease progression and death.
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ABSTRACT: Background Despite a substantial reduction in virological failures following introduction of new potent antiretroviral therapies in the latest years, drug resistance remains a limitation for the control of HIV-1 infection. We evaluated trends and correlates of resistance in treatment failing patients in a comprehensive database over a time period of relevant changes in prescription attitudes and treatment guidelines. Methods We analyzed 6,796 HIV-1 pol sequences from 49 centres stored in the Italian ARCA database during the 2003-2012 period. Patients (n = 5,246) with viremia > 200 copies/mL received a genotypic test while on treatment. Mutations were identified from IAS-USA 2013 tables. Class resistance was evaluated according to antiretroviral regimens in use at failure. Time trends and correlates of resistance were analyzed by Cochran-Armitage test and logistic regression models. Results The use of NRTI backbone regimens slightly decreased from 99.7% in 2003-2004 to 97.4% in 2010-2012. NNRTI-based combinations dropped from 46.7% to 24.1%. PI-containing regimens rose from 56.6% to 81.7%, with an increase of boosted PI from 36.5% to 68.9% overtime. In the same reference periods, Resistance to NRTIs, NNRTIs and PIs declined from 79.1% to 40.8%, from 77.8% to 53.8% and from 59.8% to 18.9%, respectively (p < .0001 for all comparisons). Dual NRTI + NNRTI and NRTI + PI resistance decreased from 56.4% to 33.3% and from 36.1% to 10.5%, respectively. Reduced risk of resistance over time periods was confirmed by a multivariate analysis. Conclusions Mutations associated with NRTIs, NNRTIs and PIs at treatment failure declined overtime regardless of specific class combinations and epidemiological characteristics of treated population. This is likely due to the improvement of HIV treatment, including both last generation drug combinations and prescription guidelines.BMC Infectious Diseases 07/2014; 14(398). · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The availability and access to potent antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) has brought drastic improvements in the mortality and morbidity and life expectancy of people living with HIV. Nevertheless, multi-drug ARV-resistance development is inevitable. Managing these patients; whose treatment goals are the same as naïve patients of suppressing viral load (VL) while increasing and sustaining high CD4+ T-cell count, remains challenging and complex. Protease Inhibitors (PI) are recommended for managing ‘Highly Treatment-Experienced’ HIV positive patients, especially, in combined (boosted-) form with another PI. This review compared the efficacy of recommended PI, boosted-Tipranavir (TPV), against other standard Protease Inhibitors in managing highly treatment-experienced HIV patients to reduce and sustain undetectable viral load levels. The ritonavir-boosted Tipranavir was showed higher efficacy rates than its comparators in achieving the desired goal.11/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Worldwide circulating HIV-1 genomes show extensive variation represented by different subtypes, polymorphisms and drug-resistant strains. Reports on the impact of sequence variation on antiretroviral therapy (ART) outcomes are mixed. In this review, we summarize relevant published data from both resource-rich and resource-limited countries in the last 10 years on the impact of HIV-1 sequence diversity on treatment outcomes. The prevalence of transmission of drug resistant mutations (DRMs) varies considerably, ranging from 0% to 27% worldwide. Factors such as geographic location, access and availability to ART, duration since inception of treatment programs, quality of care, risk-taking behaviors, mode of transmission, and viral subtype all dictate the prevalence in a particular geographical region. Although HIV-1 subtype may not be a good predictor of treatment outcome, review of emerging evidence supports the fact that HIV-1 genome sequence-resulting from natural polymorphisms or drug-associated mutations-matters when it comes to treatment outcomes. Therefore, continued surveillance of drug resistant variants in both treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced populations is needed to reduce the transmission of DRMs and to optimize the efficacy of the current ART armamentarium.Viruses 10/2014; 6(10):3855-3872. · 3.28 Impact Factor