Suicidality in adjustment disorder--clinical characteristics of adolescent outpatients.
ABSTRACT Although a remarkable proportion of adolescents suffering from adjustment disorder (AD) are suicidal, few studies have documented the characteristics of suicidal AD patients. We examined background, psychopathology and treatment-related factors among suicidal adolescent AD outpatients.
Data on 302 consecutively referred psychiatric outpatient adolescents, aged 12-22 years, were collected. DSM-III-R diagnoses were assigned at the end of treatment based on all available data. Of the patients 89 received a diagnosis of AD, 25% of whom showed suicide attempts, suicidal threats or ideation.
Compared with non-suicidal AD patients, suicidal AD patients were characterized by previous psychiatric treatment (OR = 6.1), poor psychosocial functioning at treatment entry (OR = 16.2), suicide as a stressor (OR = 33.3), dysphoric mood (OR = 6.9) and psychomotor restlessness (OR = 3.7).
Common risk factors for suicidality in major psychiatric disorders characterized suicidal AD patients. Psychiatric assessment of AD patients should include careful monitoring of both symptomatology and exposure to suicide of significant others.
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ABSTRACT: Little is known about suicidal ideation and behaviours in adjustment disorder (AD). In this paper we sought to examine the variables independently associated with suicidal ideation and behaviour in patients diagnosed with AD or depressive (DE) episode among psychiatric outpatients and in liaison psychiatry. 370 patients who were referred to the liaison psychiatry services (including those seen in the Emergency Department) at 3 Dublin hospitals, and were clinically diagnosed with either DE or AD, based on the ICD 10 diagnostic criteria, were recruited to the study. We examined their demographic and clinical characteristics, and the associations between these and suicidal ideation and behaviour on multivariate analysis. Younger age, single marital status, and greater severity of depressive symptoms were significantly associated with suicidality across both diagnoses. On multivariate analysis, greater severity of depressive symptoms was associated with suicidality in those with AD (p=0.012) and DE (p=0.009). Those with AD exhibited suicidality at lower symptom scores than did those with DE but in both groups it still occurred at the highest level of severity. There were differences in the objective circumstances measure of suicide intent. We used clinical diagnosis rather as the main diagnostic classification. The generalisability of this paper may be limited to consultation-liaison psychiatry settings, where suicidal ideation and behaviours are common. Suicidality in AD and DE has broadly similar risk factors but differ in aspects of suicide intent. Different mechanisms may underpin suicidality in those with AD compared to DE. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.Journal of Affective Disorders 12/2014; 174C:441-446. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.12.003 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to identify predictors of suicidality in youth presenting to a pediatric psychiatric emergency room service (PPERS). To this end, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of youth aged <18 years consecutively assessed by a PPERS 01.01.2002-12.31.2002, using a 12-page semi-structured institutional evaluation form and the Columbia Classification Algorithm for Suicide Assessment. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to identify correlates of suicidal thoughts and attempts/preparation and their relationship to outpatient/inpatient disposition. Of 1,062 youth, 265 (25.0 %) presented with suicidal ideation (16.2 %) or attempt/preparation (8.8 %). Suicidal ideation was associated with female sex, depression, adjustment disorder, absent referral by family/friend/self, school referral, precipitant of peer conflict, and no antipsychotic treatment (p < 0.0001). Suicidal attempt/preparation was associated with female sex, depression, lower GAF score, past suicide attempt, precipitant of peer conflict, and no stimulant treatment (p < 0.0001). Compared to suicidal attempt/preparation, suicidal ideation was associated with school referral, and higher GAF score (p < 0.0001). Of the 265 patients with suicidality, 58.5 % were discharged home (ideation = 72.1 % vs. attempt/preparation = 33.7 %, p < 0.0001). In patients with suicidal ideation, outpatient disposition was associated with higher GAF score, school referral, and adjustment disorder (p < 0.0001). In patients with suicidal attempt/preparation, outpatient disposition was associated with higher GAF score, lower acuity rating, and school referral (p < 0.0001). Suicidality is common among PPERS evaluations. Higher GAF score and school referral distinguished suicidal ideation from suicidal attempt/preparation and was associated with outpatient disposition in both presentations. Increased education of referral sources and establishment of different non-PPERS evaluation systems may improve identification of non-emergent suicidal presentations and encourage more appropriate outpatient referrals.European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 10/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00787-014-0624-x · 3.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Research on adolescent adjustment disorder (AD) is scarce. We characterized adolescent outpatients with AD in psychosocial background and treatment received compared with patients with other non-psychotic disorders (OND). Furthermore, we explored precipitant stressors, distress symptoms and behavioral problems among males and females with AD. Data were collected prospectively on 290 consecutive psychiatric outpatients, aged 12-22 yrs, at a secondary care clinic in Finland. DSM-III-R diagnoses were assigned, based on all available information, at the end of treatment. AD was the second most common diagnosis among non-psychotic patients (31% of 290). Compared to OND-patients, those with AD were predominantly female and had less severe psychosocial impairment. In multivariate comparisons school-related stressors, problems with law and restlessness characterized males, and parental illness and internalizing symptoms females with AD. Intensity and duration of treatment of AD-patients varied widely. Adjustment disorder comprised a common clinical entity among adolescent outpatients. Psychiatric assessment and treatment should be individually targeted by taking into account gender-specific stressors and distress symptoms among young people with AD.European Psychiatry 08/2007; 22(5):288-95. DOI:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2006.04.010 · 3.21 Impact Factor