Maintenance of the CD40-related immunodeficient response in hyper-IgM B cells immortalized with a LMP1-regulated mini-EBV.
ABSTRACT Our previous investigation of a patient (pt1) with non-X-linked hyper-immunoglobulin M syndrome revealed a CD40-mediated defect in B cell activation that resulted in low CD23 expression and absence of germ-line transcription and class-switch recombination. These deficiencies were complemented in vitro by a high threshold of sustained signaling through CD40. To further analyze the signaling defect in pt1 B cells, two types of Epstein-Barr virus lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) were generated that either constitutively expressed the viral transforming protein latent membrane protein-1 (LMP1; pt1-LCL) or expressed it under the control of a tet-inducible promoter (pt1-LCL(tet)). Because LMP1 signals through the CD40 pathway, the pt1-LCL and pt1-LCL(tet) lines allow comparison of downstream functions in response to either constitutive LMP1 signals or regulated LMP1 and CD40 signals. Immortalized pt1-LCLs were initially CD23(lo)/CD38(hi) and reverted to a CD23(hi)/CD38(lo) phenotype upon extended growth in culture, suggesting that the CD40 defect was reversed by selection and/or constitutive expression of LMP1. In contrast, pt1-LCL(tet) cells retained the CD23(lo)/CD38(hi) phenotype after extended periods of culture and failed to up-regulate CD23 in response to CD40 signals. Analysis of pt1-LCL(tet) cells in response to the CD40 signals in the presence or absence of LMP1 revealed that mitogenic activation resulted only from LMP1 and not CD40, indicating a difference in the response of pt1 B cells to these two distinct signals. Together, these data demonstrate that the pt1-LCL(tet) cells maintain the CD40-related defect and provide a unique approach to study the independent effects of LMP1- and CD40-directed signals.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Lori R Covey, Feb 21, 2014
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ABSTRACT: LMP1-mediated activation of nuclear factor of kappaB (NF-κB) is critical for the ligand independent proliferation and cell survival of in vitro EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). Previous experiments revealed that a majority of LMP1-dependent responses are regulated by NF-κB. However, the extent that individual NF-κB family members are required for these responses, in particular, c-Rel, whose expression is restricted to mature hematopoietic cells, remains unclear. Here we report that low c-Rel expression in LCLs derived from a patient with hyper-IgM syndrome (Pt1), resulted in defects in proliferation and cell survival. In contrast to studies that associated loss of NF-κB with increased apoptosis, Pt1 LCLs failed to initiate apoptosis and alternatively underwent autophagy and necrotic cell death. Whereas the proliferation defect appeared linked to a c-Rel-associated decrease in c-myc expression, identified pro-survival and pro-apoptotic targets were expressed at or near control levels consistent with the absence of apoptosis. Ultrastructural examination of Pt1 LCLs revealed a high level of cellular and ER stress that was further supported by gene expression profiling showing the upregulation of several genes involved in stress and inflammation. Apoptosis-independent cell death was accompanied by increased expression of the inflammatory marker, caspase-4. Using gene overexpression and siRNA knockdown we demonstrated that levels of c-Rel directly modulated expression of caspase-4 as well as other ER stress genes. Overall, these findings reveal the importance of c-Rel in maintaining LCL viability and that decreased expression results in ER stress and a default response leading to necrotic cell death.PLoS ONE 10/2011; 6(10):e25467. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0025467 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Identification of novel genetic risk factors is imperative for a better understanding of B lymphomagenesis and for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. TRAF3, a critical regulator of B cell survival, was recently recognized as a tumor suppressor gene in B lymphocytes. The present study aimed to identify novel oncogenes involved in malignant transformation of TRAF3-deficient B cells.Methods We used microarray analysis to identify genes differentially expressed in TRAF3¿/¿ mouse splenic B lymphomas. We employed lentiviral vector-mediated knockdown or overexpression to manipulate gene expression in human multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines. We analyzed cell apoptosis and proliferation using flow cytometry, and performed biochemical studies to investigate signaling mechanisms. To delineate protein-protein interactions, we applied affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry-based sequencing.ResultsWe identified mutated in colorectal cancer (MCC) as a gene strikingly up-regulated in TRAF3-deficient mouse B lymphomas and human MM cell lines. Aberrant up-regulation of MCC also occurs in a variety of primary human B cell malignancies, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and MM. In contrast, MCC expression was not detected in normal or premalignant TRAF3¿/¿ B cells even after treatment with B cell stimuli, suggesting that aberrant up-regulation of MCC is specifically associated with malignant transformation of B cells. In elucidating the functional roles of MCC in malignant B cells, we found that lentiviral shRNA vector-mediated knockdown of MCC induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in human MM cells. Experiments of knockdown and overexpression of MCC allowed us to identify several downstream targets of MCC in human MM cells, including phospho-ERK, c-Myc, p27, cyclin B1, Mcl-1, caspases 8 and 3. Furthermore, we identified 365 proteins (including 326 novel MCC-interactors) in the MCC interactome, among which PARP1 and PHB2 were two hubs of MCC signaling pathways in human MM cells.Conclusions Our results indicate that in sharp contrast to its tumor suppressive role in colorectal cancer, MCC functions as an oncogene in B cells. Our findings suggest that MCC may serve as a diagnostic marker and therapeutic target in B cell malignancies, including NHL and MM.Journal of Hematology & Oncology 09/2014; 7(1):56. DOI:10.1186/s13045-014-0056-6 · 4.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The mRNA encoding CD154, a critical protein involved in both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, is regulated at the posttranscriptional level by the binding of complex I, a polypyrimidine tract-binding (PTB) protein-containing complex, which acts to increase message stability at late times of activation. Our current work focuses on analyzing a similar complex in B cells, designated B-cpx I, which is increased in B cells activated by CpG engagement of the TLR9 receptor but not by activation through CD40. Expression profiling of transcripts from primary B cells identified 31 mRNA transcripts with elevated PTB binding upon activation. Two of these transcripts, Rab8A and cyclin D(2), contained binding sites for B-cpx I in their 3' untranslated regions (UTRs). Analysis of turnover of endogenous Rab8A transcript in B cells revealed that like CD154, the mRNA half-life increased following activation and insertion of the Rab8A B-cpx I binding site into a heterologous transcript led to a 3-fold increase in stability. Also, short hairpin RNA down-regulation of PTB resulted in a corresponding decrease in Rab8A mRNA half-life. Overall these data strongly support a novel pathway of mRNA turnover that is expressed both in T cells and B cells and depends on the formation of a PTB-containing stability complex in response to cellular activation.The Journal of Immunology 10/2008; 181(5):3336-45. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.181.5.3336 · 5.36 Impact Factor