Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by asymptomatic and non-progressive hypercalcemia resulting from loss-of-function mutations of the CASR (calcium-sensing receptor) gene located on chromosome 3, or from mutations in two mapped but unidentified genes located on chromosome 19.
We report a middle-aged woman incidentally found to have FHH. To determine the molecular basis of FHH in this Chinese family, we performed direct DNA sequencing of the CASR gene of the proband.
We found that the proband is heterozygous for a novel missense mutation P798T, confirming the diagnosis of FHH. Family screening showed that all of the offspring with biochemical features of FHH have the P798T mutation. The mutation, P798T, is located in the third intracellular loop of the CASR, possibly affecting the downstream calcium sensing pathway and therefore inactivating the receptor function.
The molecular basis of FHH in a Chinese family was established. The developed mutation detection assay provides a reliable method for identifying FHH carriers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calcium is a vital mineral for the developing newborn infant. This review discusses perinatal and neonatal calcium metabolism, with an emphasis on enteral calcium absorption and the nutritional factors affecting calcium bioavailability including the three major endocrine hormones involved in calcium metabolism: parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, and calcitonin. The placenta transports calcium to the fetus throughout pregnancy, with the largest amount of fetal calcium accumulation occurring in the third trimester. At birth, the newborn transitions to intestinal absorption to meet the body's calcium needs. Most calcium is absorbed by paracellular passive diffusion in the small intestine. Calcium intestinal absorption is affected by the type and amount of calcium ingested. It is also affected by the amount of intestinal calcium that is bound to dietary fats and proteins. One major consequence of decreased calcium absorption is metabolic bone disease in which there is a failure of complete mineralization of the bone osteoid.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the discovery of the first rhodopsin mutation that causes retinitis pigmentosa in 1990, significant progresses have been made in elucidating the pathophysiology of diseases caused by inactivating mutations of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This review aims to compile the compelling evidence accumulated during the past 15 years demonstrating the etiologies of more than a dozen diseases caused by inactivating GPCR mutations. A generalized classification scheme, based on the life cycle of GPCRs, is proposed. Insights gained through detailed studies of these naturally occurring mutations into the structure-function relationship of these receptors are reviewed. Therapeutic approaches directed against the different classes of mutants are being developed. Since intracellular retention emerges as the most common defect, recent progresses aimed at correcting this defect through membrane permeable pharmacological chaperones are highlighted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The calcium-sensing receptor has a key role in calcium homeostasis, it is involved in the regulation of the serum calcium level within minutes via the secretion and action of parathyroid and the excretion of calcium in the kidney in a negative feedback manner. Mutations of the calcium sensing receptor gene leads to inactivating and activating mutations resulting in diseases with hypercalcaemia and hypocalcaemia. The loss of function mutations are associated with familial benign hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia (FHH), an autosomal dominant disease characterised by lifelong mild hypercalcaemia, low urinary calcium excretion, and inappropriate high parathyroid hormone levels, sometimes difficult to distinguish from mild asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism. Patients with FHH did not profit from parathyroidectomy, a calcium lowering therapy is not necessary. The gain of function mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor are associated with autosomal dominant hypocalcaemia (ADH), a disease characterised by a generally asymptomatic hypocalcaemia, inappropriately high urinary calcium excretion and normal PTH levels. A therapy to raise the serum calcium concentration has to be done carefully and is only indicated in symptomatic patients, because of enhancement of hypercalciuria with the risk of nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. Molecular genetic analysis of the calcium sensing receptor gene facilitates the sometimes difficult diagnosis. The development of compounds modulating the calcium sensing receptor function and thereby the section of PTH may become an important role in treatment of diseases of calcium metabolism.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.