Novel missense mutation in the CASR gene in a Chinese family with familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia.
ABSTRACT Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by asymptomatic and non-progressive hypercalcemia resulting from loss-of-function mutations of the CASR (calcium-sensing receptor) gene located on chromosome 3, or from mutations in two mapped but unidentified genes located on chromosome 19.
We report a middle-aged woman incidentally found to have FHH. To determine the molecular basis of FHH in this Chinese family, we performed direct DNA sequencing of the CASR gene of the proband.
We found that the proband is heterozygous for a novel missense mutation P798T, confirming the diagnosis of FHH. Family screening showed that all of the offspring with biochemical features of FHH have the P798T mutation. The mutation, P798T, is located in the third intracellular loop of the CASR, possibly affecting the downstream calcium sensing pathway and therefore inactivating the receptor function.
The molecular basis of FHH in a Chinese family was established. The developed mutation detection assay provides a reliable method for identifying FHH carriers.
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- "The human CaSR gene is located on chromosome 3q13.3-q21. Loss of function CaSR mutations have been reported in hypercalcemic disorders   . Low serum Ca levels stimulate PTH production. "
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ABSTRACT: The calcium-sensing receptor has a key role in calcium homeostasis, it is involved in the regulation of the serum calcium level within minutes via the secretion and action of parathyroid and the excretion of calcium in the kidney in a negative feedback manner. Mutations of the calcium sensing receptor gene leads to inactivating and activating mutations resulting in diseases with hypercalcaemia and hypocalcaemia. The loss of function mutations are associated with familial benign hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia (FHH), an autosomal dominant disease characterised by lifelong mild hypercalcaemia, low urinary calcium excretion, and inappropriate high parathyroid hormone levels, sometimes difficult to distinguish from mild asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism. Patients with FHH did not profit from parathyroidectomy, a calcium lowering therapy is not necessary. The gain of function mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor are associated with autosomal dominant hypocalcaemia (ADH), a disease characterised by a generally asymptomatic hypocalcaemia, inappropriately high urinary calcium excretion and normal PTH levels. A therapy to raise the serum calcium concentration has to be done carefully and is only indicated in symptomatic patients, because of enhancement of hypercalciuria with the risk of nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. Molecular genetic analysis of the calcium sensing receptor gene facilitates the sometimes difficult diagnosis. The development of compounds modulating the calcium sensing receptor function and thereby the section of PTH may become an important role in treatment of diseases of calcium metabolism.Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes 10/2006; 114(8):397-405. DOI:10.1055/s-2006-924315 · 1.76 Impact Factor