Methicillin-resistant–Staphylococcus aureus Hospitalizations, United States

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA.
Emerging infectious diseases (Impact Factor: 6.75). 07/2005; 11(6):868-72. DOI: 10.3201/eid1106.040831
Source: PubMed


Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is increasingly a cause of nosocomial and community-onset infection with unknown national scope and magnitude. We used the National Hospital Discharge Survey to calculate the number of US hospital discharges listing S. aureus-specific diagnoses, defined as those having at least 1 International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 code specific for S. aureus infection. The number of hospital discharges listing S. aureus-specific diagnoses was multiplied by the proportion of methicillin resistance for each corresponding infection site to determine the number of MRSA infections. From 1999 to 2000, an estimated 125,969 hospitalizations with a diagnosis of MRSA infection occurred annually, including 31,440 for septicemia, 29,823 for pneumonia, and 64,706 for other infections, accounting for 3.95 per 1,000 hospital discharges. The method used in our analysis may provide a simple way to assess trends of the magnitude of MRSA infection nationally.

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    • "Reemergence of diseases thought to be controlled or eradicated and the development of new drug-resistant organisms continue to be life and welfare threatening in all parts of the world (Matthew, 2005; EARSS, 2005; Greene, 2006; Chung et al., 2011). MRSA is well recognized as a significant pathogen both in human and in animal medicine (Matthew, 2005; Vestby and Nesse, 2015). Data from antimicrobial surveillance programs have also reported increasing rates of MRSA among Staphylococcus aureus isolated from ICU patients throughout the world (Jones et al, 2004; Rosenthal et al, 2014). "
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    DESCRIPTION: Sensitivity of Methicillin-Resistance and Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Strains to Some Different Disinfectants
    • "Among the antibiotic-resistant bacteria, MRSA is of particular concern. MRSA infections cause about 126,000 hospitalizations each year in the United States (Kuehnert et al., 2005), although many hospitals have successfully reduced the rates in recent years (Jain et al., 2011). Copper's efficacy against MRSA has been demonstrated in several independent studies (Gould et al., 2009; Mehtar, Wiid, & Todorov, 2008; Michels, Noyce, & Keevil, 2009; Noyce, Michels, & Keevil, 2006a; Weaver, Noyce, et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: This is a translational science article that discusses copper alloys as antimicrobial environmental surfaces. Bacteria die when they come in contact with copper alloys in laboratory tests. Components made of copper alloys were also found to be efficacious in a clinical trial. There are indications that bacteria found on frequently touched environmental surfaces play a role in infection transmission. In laboratory testing, copper alloy samples were inoculated with bacteria. In clinical trials, the amount of live bacteria on the surfaces of hospital components made of copper alloys, as well as those made from standard materials, was measured. Finally, infection rates were tracked in the hospital rooms with the copper components and compared to those found in the rooms containing the standard components. Greater than a 99.9% reduction in live bacteria was realized in laboratory tests. In the clinical trials, an 83% reduction in bacteria was seen on the copper alloy components, when compared to the surfaces made from standard materials in the control rooms. Finally, the infection rates were found to be reduced by 58% in patient rooms with components made of copper, when compared to patients' rooms with components made of standard materials. Bacteria die on copper alloy surfaces in both the laboratory and the hospital rooms. Infection rates were lowered in those hospital rooms containing copper components. Thus, based on the presented information, the placement of copper alloy components, in the built environment, may have the potential to reduce not only hospital-acquired infections but also patient treatment costs. © The Author(s) 2015.
    HERD 07/2015; 9(1). DOI:10.1177/1937586715592650 · 0.39 Impact Factor
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    • "Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen that causes a wide variety of infections, ranging from skin and soft tissue infections to severe invasive diseases, such as sepsis and endocarditis. Approximately 35% of skin and soft tissue infection cases occur in people over 65 years of age, and 25% of these subjects later present with invasive staphylococcal diseases [1], [2], [3], [4]. Hence, for elderly people, skin and soft-tissue staphylococcal infections are an important risk factor for the development of serious invasive staphylococcal diseases. "
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    ABSTRACT: Elderly humans show increased susceptibility to invasive staphylococcal disease after skin and soft tissue infection. However, it is not understood how host immunity changes with aging, and how that predisposes to invasive disease. In a model of severe skin infection, we showed that aged mice (16- to 20-month-old) exhibit dramatic bacterial dissemination compared with young adult mice (2-month-old). Bacterial dissemination was associated with significant reductions of CXCL1 (KC), polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs), and extracellular DNA traps (NETs) at the infection site. PMNs and primary skin fibroblasts isolated from aged mice showed decreased secretion of CXCL2 (MIP-2) and KC in response to MRSA, and in vitro analyses of mitochondrial functions revealed that the mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I plays a significant role in induction of chemokines in the cells isolated from young but not old mice. Additionally, PMNs isolated from aged mice have reduced ability to form NETs and to kill MRSA. Expression of nuclease by S. aureus led to increased bacterial systemic dissemination in young but not old mice, suggesting that defective NETs formation in elderly mice permitted nuclease and non-nuclease expressing S. aureus to disseminate equally well. Overall, these findings suggest that gross impairment of both skin barrier function and innate immunity contributes to the propensity for MRSA to disseminate in aged mice. Furthermore, the study indicates that contribution of bacterial factors to pathogenicity may vary with host age.
    PLoS ONE 07/2012; 7(7):e41454. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0041454 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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