Drug-induced liver disease (DILD) causes significant morbidity and mortality and impairs new drug development. Currently, no known criteria can predict whether a drug will cause DILD or what risk factors make an individual susceptible. Although it has been shown in mouse studies that the disruption of key regulatory factors, such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10, increased susceptibility to DILD caused by acetaminophen (APAP), no single factor seems to be absolute. As an approach to better understand the multifactorial basis of DILD, we compared the hepatic proteome of mice that are resistant (SJL) and susceptible (C57Bl/6) to APAP-induced liver disease (AILD), using solution-based isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT) liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Several novel factors were identified that were more highly expressed in the livers of SJL mice, including those involved in stress response, cell proliferation and tissue regeneration, and protein modification, implicating these proteins as potential hepatoprotective factors. There was also a selective loss of several mitochondrial proteins from the livers of the susceptible C57Bl/6 mice, suggesting that the loss of functional mitochondria may indeed play a role in AILD. These findings indicate that comparative hepatic proteomic analyses of susceptible and resistant mouse strains may provide a global approach for identifying potential risk factors and mechanistic pathways responsible for DILD.
"and loss of ATP synthesis, and leads to necrosis of the metabolizing hepatocytes . Further study has shown that a number of mitochondrial proteins change expression during AILD and are adducted by NAPQI  . It is thought that these changes to the mitochondrial proteome reflect and support a mechanism of toxicity caused by oxidative stress and alterations in electron transport. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanism by which acetaminophen (APAP) causes liver damage evokes many aspects drug metabolism, oxidative chemistry, and genetic-predisposition. In this study, we leverage the relative resistance of female C57BL/6 mice to APAP-induced liver damage (AILD) compared to male C57BL/6 mice in order to identify the cause(s) of sensitivity. Furthermore, we use mice that are either heterozygous (HZ) or null (KO) for glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (Gclm), in order to titrate the toxicity relative to wild-type (WT) mice. Gclm is important for efficient de novo synthesis of glutathione (GSH). APAP (300 mg/kg, ip) or saline was administered and mice were collected at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h. Male mice showed marked elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase by 6 h. In contrast, female WT and HZ mice showed minimal toxicity at all time points. Female KO mice, however, showed AILD comparable to male mice. Genotype-matched male and female mice showed comparable APAP-protein adducts, with Gclm KO mice sustaining significantly greater adducts. ATP was depleted in mice showing toxicity, suggesting impaired mitochondria function. Indeed, peroxiredoxin-6, a GSH-dependent peroxiredoxin, was preferentially adducted by APAP in mitochondria of male mice but rarely adducted in female mice. These results support parallel mechanisms of toxicity where APAP adduction of peroxiredoxin-6 and sustained GSH depletion results in the collapse of mitochondria function and hepatocyte death. We conclude that adduction of peroxiredoxin-6 sensitizes male C57BL/6 mice to toxicity by acetaminophen.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity is the most frequent precipitating cause of acute liver failure and liver transplant, but contemporary medical practice has mainly focused on patient management after a liver injury has been induced. An integrative genetic, transcriptional, and two-dimensional NMR-based metabolomic analysis performed using multiple inbred mouse strains, along with knowledge-based filtering of these data, identified betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase 2 (Bhmt2) as a diet-dependent genetic factor that affected susceptibility to acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity in mice. Through an effect on methionine and glutathione biosynthesis, Bhmt2 could utilize its substrate (S-methylmethionine [SMM]) to confer protection against acetaminophen-induced injury in vivo. Since SMM is only synthesized in plants, Bhmt2 exerts its beneficial effect in a diet-dependent manner. Identification of Bhmt2 and the affected biosynthetic pathway demonstrates how a novel method of integrative genomic analysis in mice can provide a unique and clinically applicable approach to a major public health problem.
Genome Research 11/2009; 20(1):28-35. DOI:10.1101/gr.097212.109 · 14.63 Impact Factor
"To avoid these obstacles, shotgun proteomics provides a good alternative approach in which the protein mixture is first digested into more soluble fragments and then the resulting peptide mixture is separated by various means and analyzed by MS   . Shotgun proteomic analysis involves solution-based digestion that leads to proteolytic degradation of cell or tissue lysates or subfractions , followed by analysis of the resulting complex peptide mixtures by one-dimensional (1-D) or 2-D liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with tandem MS (MS/MS)    . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Zebrafish is a powerful model to analyze vertebrate embryogenesis and organ development. Although a number of genes have been identified to specify embryonic development processes, only a few large-scale proteomic analyses have been reported in regard to these events to date. Here the total proteins of a single embryo were analyzed by urea-, sodium deoxycholate (SDC)-, and performic acid (PA)-assisted trypsin digestion strategies coupled to capillary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (CapLC-MS/MS) identification. In total, 509 and 210 proteins were detected from the embryos at 72 and 120 hours postfertilization (hpf), respectively, with a false identification rate of less than 1%. Approximately 95% of those proteins could be observed by combining the urea- and SDC-assisted digestion strategies, suggesting that these two methods are more effective than the PA-assisted method. Compared with 0.5% SDC, 1% SDC was more effective to identify proteins in zebrafish embryos. In addition, removal of the predominant yolk proteins could significantly improve protein identification efficiency. Our study represents the first overview of the protein expression profile of a single zebrafish embryo at 72 or 120 hpf. More important, this single individual proteome methodology could be applied to multiple development stages of wide-type or mutant embryos, providing a simple and powerful way to further our understanding of embryonic development.
Jianmei Wu, Yingtao Zhang, Richard Wiegand, Jian Wang, Gerold Bepler, Jing Li
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