Proteomic identification of potential susceptibility factors in drug-induced liver disease
ABSTRACT Drug-induced liver disease (DILD) causes significant morbidity and mortality and impairs new drug development. Currently, no known criteria can predict whether a drug will cause DILD or what risk factors make an individual susceptible. Although it has been shown in mouse studies that the disruption of key regulatory factors, such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10, increased susceptibility to DILD caused by acetaminophen (APAP), no single factor seems to be absolute. As an approach to better understand the multifactorial basis of DILD, we compared the hepatic proteome of mice that are resistant (SJL) and susceptible (C57Bl/6) to APAP-induced liver disease (AILD), using solution-based isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT) liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Several novel factors were identified that were more highly expressed in the livers of SJL mice, including those involved in stress response, cell proliferation and tissue regeneration, and protein modification, implicating these proteins as potential hepatoprotective factors. There was also a selective loss of several mitochondrial proteins from the livers of the susceptible C57Bl/6 mice, suggesting that the loss of functional mitochondria may indeed play a role in AILD. These findings indicate that comparative hepatic proteomic analyses of susceptible and resistant mouse strains may provide a global approach for identifying potential risk factors and mechanistic pathways responsible for DILD.
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ABSTRACT: The mechanism by which acetaminophen (APAP) causes liver damage evokes many aspects drug metabolism, oxidative chemistry, and genetic-predisposition. In this study, we leverage the relative resistance of female C57BL/6 mice to APAP-induced liver damage (AILD) compared to male C57BL/6 mice in order to identify the cause(s) of sensitivity. Furthermore, we use mice that are either heterozygous (HZ) or null (KO) for glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (Gclm), in order to titrate the toxicity relative to wild-type (WT) mice. Gclm is important for efficient de novo synthesis of glutathione (GSH). APAP (300 mg/kg, ip) or saline was administered and mice were collected at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h. Male mice showed marked elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase by 6 h. In contrast, female WT and HZ mice showed minimal toxicity at all time points. Female KO mice, however, showed AILD comparable to male mice. Genotype-matched male and female mice showed comparable APAP-protein adducts, with Gclm KO mice sustaining significantly greater adducts. ATP was depleted in mice showing toxicity, suggesting impaired mitochondria function. Indeed, peroxiredoxin-6, a GSH-dependent peroxiredoxin, was preferentially adducted by APAP in mitochondria of male mice but rarely adducted in female mice. These results support parallel mechanisms of toxicity where APAP adduction of peroxiredoxin-6 and sustained GSH depletion results in the collapse of mitochondria function and hepatocyte death. We conclude that adduction of peroxiredoxin-6 sensitizes male C57BL/6 mice to toxicity by acetaminophen.01/2014; 2:377-87. DOI:10.1016/j.redox.2014.01.008
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ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to identify differences in the expression levels of liver proteins between healthy and ketotic cows, establish a liver metabolic interrelationship of ketosis and elucidate the metabolic characteristics of the liver during ketosis. Liver samples from 8 healthy multiparous Hostein cows and 8 ketotic cows were pooled by health status and the proteins were separated by two-dimensional-electrophoresis (2D-E). Statistical analysis of gels was performed using PDQuest software 8.0. The differences in the expression levels of liver proteins (pAsian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 07/2008; 21(7). DOI:10.5713/ajas.2008.70392 · 0.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Acute hepatic failure secondary to paracetamol poisoning is associated with high mortality. Paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity causes oxidative stress that triggers signalling pathways and ultimately leads to lethal hepatocyte injury. We will review the signalling pathways activated by paracetamol in the liver emphasizing the role of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) in the balance between cell death and survival in hepatocytes. PTP1B has emerged as a key modulator of the antioxidant system mediated by the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in hepatic cells in response to paracetamol overdose. Also, this phosphatase modulates the classical survival pathways triggered by the activation of the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) signalling cascade. Therefore, PTP1B is a novel therapeutic target against paracetamol-induced liver failure.Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry 05/2014; 120(2):51-63. DOI:10.3109/13813455.2014.893365