Article

Antiviral medications to prevent cytomegalovirus disease and early death in recipients of solid-organ transplants: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

National Health and Medical Research Council Centre for Clinical Research Excellence, Centre for Kidney Research, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, Australia.
The Lancet (Impact Factor: 39.21). 06/2005; 365(9477):2105-15. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)66553-1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Antiviral prophylaxis is commonly used in recipients of solid-organ transplants with the aim of preventing the clinical syndrome associated with cytomegalovirus infection. We undertook a systematic review to investigate whether this approach affects risks of cytomegalovirus disease and death.
Randomised controlled trials of prophylaxis with antiviral medications for cytomegalovirus disease in solid-organ-transplant recipients were identified. Data were combined in meta-analyses by a random-effects model.
Compared with placebo or no treatment, prophylaxis with aciclovir, ganciclovir, or valaciclovir significantly reduced the risks of cytomegalovirus disease (19 trials, 1981 patients; relative risk 0.42 [95% CI 0.34-0.52]), cytomegalovirus infection (17 trials, 1786 patients; 0.61 [0.48-0.77]), and all-cause mortality (17 trials, 1838 patients; 0.63 [0.43-0.92]), mainly owing to lower mortality from cytomegalovirus disease (seven trials, 1300 patients; 0.26 [0.08-0.78]). Prophylaxis also lowered the risks of disease caused by herpes simplex or zoster virus, bacterial infections, and protozoal infections, but not fungal infection, acute rejection, or graft loss. Meta-regression showed no significant difference in the risk of cytomegalovirus disease or all-cause mortality by organ transplanted or cytomegalovirus serostatus; no conclusions were possible for cytomegalovirus-negative recipients of negative organs. In trials of direct comparisons, ganciclovir was more effective than aciclovir in preventing cytomegalovirus disease. Valganciclovir and intravenous ganciclovir were as effective as oral ganciclovir.
Prophylaxis with antiviral medications reduces the risk of cytomegalovirus disease and associated mortality in recipients of solid-organ transplants. This approach should be used routinely in cytomegalovirus-positive recipients and in cytomegalovirus-negative recipients of organs positive for the virus.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
171 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of malignancies in patients after heart transplantation (HTX) and to evaluate the risk factors including immunosuppressive therapy with regard to the development of malignancies and survival. Special emphasis was placed on the effects of a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) containing immunosuppressive regimen. A total of 381 patients (age ≥18 years) receiving HTX were included in the present analysis. All patients were followed-up at the University of Heidelberg Heart Center, Heidelberg, Germany. Data were retrieved from the Heidelberg Registry for Heart Transplantation being collected between 1989 and 2014. According to center standard, all patients received induction therapy with anti-thymocyte globulin guided by T-cell monitoring since 1994. The initial immunosuppressive regimen consisting of cyclosporine A (CsA) and azathioprine (AZA) was replaced by CsA and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in 2001 and by tacrolimus (TAC) and MMF in 2006. Additionally, mTOR inhibitors (everolimus/sirolimus) were applied since 2003. Mean recipient age at HTX was 51.2±10.5 years and the mean follow-up period after HTX was 9.7±5.9 years. During follow-up, 130 patients developed a neoplasm (34.1% of total). Subgroup analysis revealed 58 patients with cutaneous malignancy only (15.2%), 56 patients with noncutaneous malignancy only (14.7%), and 16 patients with both cutaneous and noncutaneous malignancy (4.2%). Statistically significant risk factors associated with an increased risk of malignancy after HTX were older age (P<0.0001), male recipients (P=0.0008), dyslipidemia (P=0.0263), diabetes mellitus (P=0.0003), renal insufficiency (P=0.0247), and >1 treated rejection episode (TRE) in the first year after HTX (P=0.0091). Administration of CsA (P=0.0195), AZA (P=0.0008), or steroids (P=0.0018) for >1 year after HTX was associated with increased development of malignancy, whereas administration of MMF (P<0.0001) or mTOR inhibitors (P<0.0001) was associated with a lower risk for development of malignancy. Additionally, 5-year follow-up of cutaneous malignancy recurrence (P=0.0065) and noncutaneous malignancy mortality (P=0.0011) was significantly lower in patients receiving an mTOR inhibitor containing therapy after the development of a malignancy. This study highlights the complexity of risk factors including immunosuppression with regard to the development of malignancies after HTX. mTOR-inhibitor-based immunosuppression is associated with a better outcome after HTX, particularly in cases with noncutaneous malignancy.
    Drug Design, Development and Therapy 01/2015; 9:93-102. · 3.03 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the most common viral pathogens causing clinical disease in liver transplant recipients, and contributing to substantial morbidity and occasional mortality. CMV causes febrile illness often accompanied by bone marrow suppression, and in some cases, invades tissues including the transplanted liver allograft. In addition, CMV has been significantly associated with an increased predisposition to acute and chronic allograft rejection, accelerated hepatitis C recurrence, and other opportunistic infections, as well as reduced overall patient and allograft survival. To negate the adverse effects of CMV infection on transplant outcome, its prevention, whether through antiviral prophylaxis or preemptive therapy, is an essential component to the management of liver transplant recipients. Two recently updated guidelines have suggested that antiviral prophylaxis or preemptive therapy are similarly effective in preventing CMV disease in modest-risk CMV-seropositive liver transplant recipients, while antiviral prophylaxis is the preferred strategy over preemptive therapy for the prevention of CMV disease in high-risk recipients [CMV-seronegative recipients of liver allografts from CMV-seropositive donors (D+/R-)]. However, antiviral prophylaxis has only delayed the onset of CMV disease in many CMV D+/R- liver transplant recipients, and such occurrence of late-onset CMV disease was significantly associated with increased all-cause and infection-related mortality after liver transplantation. Therefore, a search for better strategies for prevention, such as prolonged duration of antiviral prophylaxis, a hybrid approach (antiviral prophylaxis followed by preemptive therapy), or the use of immunologic measures to guide antiviral prophylaxis has been suggested to prevent late-onset CMV disease. The standard treatment of CMV disease consists of intravenous ganciclovir or oral valganciclovir, and if feasible, reduction in pharmacologic immunosuppression. In one clinical trial, oral valganciclovir was as effective as intravenous ganciclovir for the treatment of mild to moderate CMV disease in solid organ (including liver) transplant recipients. The aim of this article is to provide a state-of-the art review of the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of CMV infection and disease after liver transplantation.
    World journal of hepatology. 06/2014; 6(6):370-83.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-negative recipients of a graft from a CMV-positive donor (D+/R−) are at high risk of CMV disease. Current preventive strategies include universal prophylaxis (UP) and preemptive therapy (PT). However, the best strategy to prevent CMV disease and achieve better long-term outcomes remains a matter of debate.Methods We analyzed the incidence of CMV disease and long-term outcomes including graft dysfunction and patient mortality at 5 years after transplantation with both preventive strategies. High-risk (D+/R−) kidney and liver transplant recipients from the RESITRA cohort were included.ResultsOf 2410 kidney or liver transplant patients, 195 (8.3%) were D+/R−. The final cohort included 58 liver and 102 kidney recipients. UP was given in 92 patients and 68 received PT; 10.9% and 36.8% developed CMV disease, respectively (P < 0.01). The independent risk factors for CMV disease were PT strategy (hazard ratio [HR], 3.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6–6.9), kidney transplantation (HR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.4–9.9), and cyclosporine immunosuppression (HR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2–4.7). PT strategy was also a risk factor for CMV disease in both liver transplantation (HR, 11.0; 95% CI, 1.2–98.7) and kidney transplantation (HR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3–6.0), independently. The development of CMV replication during the first 2 years after transplantation was a risk factor for graft dysfunction at 5 years after transplantation (odds ratio, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.3–9.0). Nevertheless, no significant differences were seen in either graft dysfunction or mortality between the 2 strategies.Conclusions The study supports the benefit of the UP strategy to prevent CMV disease in D+/R− liver or kidney transplant patients. The development of CMV replication during the first 2 years after transplantation was associated with graft dysfunction at 5 years after transplantation.
    Transplant Infectious Disease 05/2014; · 1.98 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
41 Downloads
Available from
Jun 2, 2014