Polo-like Kinase 1 Creates the Tension-Sensing 3F3/2 Phosphoepitope and Modulates the Association of Spindle-Checkpoint Proteins at Kinetochores
ABSTRACT In mitosis, a mechanochemical system recognizes tension that is generated by bipolar microtubule attachment to sister kinetochores. This is translated into multiple outputs including the stabilization of microtubule attachments, changes in kinetochore protein dynamics, and the silencing of the spindle checkpoint. How kinetochores sense tension and translate this into various signals represent critical unanswered questions. The kinetochores of chromosomes not under tension are specifically phosphorylated at an epitope recognized by the 3F3/2 monoclonal antibody. Determining the kinase that generates the 3F3/2 phosphoepitope at kinetochores should reveal an important component of this system that regulates mitotic progression.
We demonstrate that Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) creates the 3F3/2 phosphoepitope on mitotic kinetochores. In a permeabilized in vitro cell system, the depletion of Xenopus Plk1 from M phase extract leads to the loss of 3F3/2 kinase activity. Purified recombinant Plk1 is sufficient to generate the 3F3/2 phosphoepitope in this system. Using siRNA, we show that the reduction of Plk1 protein levels significantly diminishes 3F3/2 phosphoepitope expression at kinetochores. The consensus phosphorylation sites of Plk1 show strong similarity to the 3F3/2 phosphoepitope sequence determined by phosphopeptide mapping. The inhibition of Plk1 by siRNA alters the normal kinetochore association of Mad2, Cenp-E, Hec1/Ndc80, Spc24, and Cdc20 and induces a spindle-checkpoint-mediated mitotic arrest.
Plk1 generates the 3F3/2 phosphoepitope at kinetochores that are not under tension and contributes to the normal kinetochore association of several key proteins important in checkpoint signaling. Mechanical tension regulates Plk1 accumulation at kinetochores and possibly its kinase activity.
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ABSTRACT: Dynactin is a protein complex required for the in vivo function of cytoplasmic dynein, a microtubule (MT)-based motor. Dynactin binds both dynein and MTs via its p150Glued subunit, but little is known about the 'pointed-end complex' that includes the protein subunits Arp11, p62 and the p27/p25 heterodimer. Here, we show that the p27/p25 heterodimer undergoes mitotic phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) at a single site, p27 Thr186, to generate an anchoring site for polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) at kinetochores. Removal of p27/p25 from dynactin results in reduced levels of Plk1 and its phosphorylated substrates at kinetochores in prometaphase, which correlates with aberrant kinetochore-MT interactions, improper chromosome alignment and abbreviated mitosis. To investigate the structural implications of p27 phosphorylation, we determined the structure of human p27. This revealed an unusual left-handed β-helix domain, with the phosphorylation site located within a disordered, C-terminal segment. We conclude that dynactin plays a previously undescribed regulatory role in the spindle assembly checkpoint by recruiting Plk1 to kinetochores and facilitating phosphorylation of important downstream targets.The EMBO Journal 03/2013; DOI:10.1038/emboj.2013.30 · 10.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Solid tumors are frequently aneuploid, and many display high rates of ongoing chromosome missegregation in a phenomenon called chromosomal instability (CIN). The most common cause of CIN is the persistence of aberrant kinetochore-microtubule (k-MT) attachments, which manifest as lagging chromosomes in anaphase. k-MT attachment errors form during prometaphase due to stochastic interactions between kinetochores and microtubules. The kinesin-13 protein Kif2b promotes the correction of k-MT attachment errors in prometaphase, but the mechanism restricting this activity to prometaphase remains unknown. Using mass spectrometry, we identified multiple phosphorylation sites on Kif2b, some of which are acutely sensitive to inhibition of Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1). We show that Plk1 directly phosphorylates Kif2b at threonine 125 (T125) and serine 204 (S204), and that these two sites differentially regulate Kif2b function. Phosphorylation of S204 is required for the kinetochore localization and activity of Kif2b in prometaphase, and phosphorylation of T125 is required for Kif2b activity in the correction of k-MT attachment errors. These data demonstrate that Plk1 regulates both the localization and activity of Kif2b during mitosis to promote the correction of k-MT attachment errors to ensure mitotic fidelity.Molecular biology of the cell 04/2012; 23(12):2264-74. DOI:10.1091/mbc.E11-12-1013 · 5.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), a well-characterized member of serine/threonine kinases Plk family, has been shown to play pivotal roles in mitosis and cytokinesis in eukaryotic cells. Recent studies suggest that Plk1 not only controls the process of mitosis and cytokinesis, but also, going beyond those previously described functions, plays critical roles in DNA replication and Pten null prostate cancer initiation. In this review, we briefly summarize the functions of Plk1 in mitosis and cytokinesis, and then mainly focus on newly discovered functions of Plk1 in DNA replication and in Pten-null prostate cancer initiation. Furthermore, we briefly introduce the architectures of human and mouse prostate glands and the possible roles of Plk1 in human prostate cancer development. And finally, the newly chemotherapeutic development of small-molecule Plk1 inhibitors to target Plk1 in cancer treatment and their translational studies are also briefly reviewed.Protein & Cell 03/2012; 3(3):182-97. DOI:10.1007/s13238-012-2020-y · 2.85 Impact Factor