[Epidemiological surveillance of blood donors and residual risk of blood-borne infections in France, 2001 to 2003].
ABSTRACT The national surveillance of French blood donors is performed by the Institut de Veille Sanitaire and the National Reference Center for Hepatitis B and C in transfusion in collaboration with the Etablissement Français du Sang and the Army blood center. The main objectives of this surveillance are to evaluate trends in prevalence and incidence rates of blood-borne infections in the blood donor population, to identify routes of contamination and to assess residual risk. This exhaustive surveillance also contributes to evaluate the blood donor selection and the impact of measures taken to prevent infections in the general population. The analyse of the database of all blood donations obtained from 2001 to 2003 has shown that prevalence rates were stable in the study period (0.60 per 10(4) donors for HIV, 8.0 per 10(4) donors for HCV, 1.8 per 10(4) first-time donors for HBs Ag and 0.56 per 10(4) donors for HTLV), The incidence rate of HIV and HBV (1 per 10(5) person-years) was three-times higher than for HCV (0.35 per 10(5) person-years) and eleven times higher than for HTLV (0.09 per 10(5) person-years). At least, the residual risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections is very low: 1/3,150,000 donations for HIV, 1/10,000,000 donations for HCV and 1/640,000 donations for HBV. The yield of Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) is limited since only 2 donations for HIV and 3 for HCV which were negative for antibodies were discarded thank to the NAT.
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ABSTRACT: Despite a considerable reduction of the risk of HBV-infected blood donation entering blood supply (residual risk) due to improved screening by HBV NAT in the developed countries, the bulk of the people with HBV living in the developing countries still needs to be screened by serologic tests such as HBsAg and anti-HBc. Many of these countries lack resources for implementing NAT and are likely to remain so in the next decade or longer, thus depending on the HBV residual risk monitoring based on serologic testing and corresponding estimation methods. This paper reviews main HBV residual risk findings worldwide and the methods based on serology used for their calculation with repeat donors, as well as their extension to the first-time donors. Two artificial datasets with high (4.36%) and low (0.48%) HBV prevalence were generated to test the performance of five methods: the original incidence/window-period model based solely on HBsAg, its modification by Soldan in 2003, the Müller-Breitkreutz model, the HBsAg yield model, and its extension to include anti-HBc seroconversions within a year. The last model was closest to the true values of residual risk and had smallest variation of the estimates in both high and low prevalence data. It may be used for residual risk evaluation in relatively small samples, such as regional blood banks data.06/2013; 2013. DOI:10.5402/2013/839896
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ABSTRACT: Hemovigilance is an organized system of surveillance throughout the transfusion chain intended to evaluate information in order to prevent the appearance or recurrence of adverse reactions related to the use of blood products. The aims of this study were to assess the late reporting of incidents related to possible seroconversion in respect to age, marital status and ethnical background, annual variations in late reporting, the number of reports opened and closed, seroconversion of donors and transfusions of blood products within the window period. This retrospective, descriptive study used data on blood donations in the blood bank in Uberaba during the period from 2004 to 2011. Some socio-epidemiological characteristics of the donors and serology test results of donors and recipients were analyzed in respect to the late reporting of incidents related to possible seroconversion. The Chi-square test, odds ratio and a regression model were used for statistical analysis. From 2004 to 2011, the blood bank in Uberaba collected 117,857 blood bags, 284 (0.24%) of which were investigated for late reported incidents. The profile of the donors was less than 29 years old, unmarried and non-Whites. Differences in age (p-value < 0.0001), marital status (p-value = 0.0002) and ethnical background (p-value < 0.0001) were found to be statistically significant. There was no statistical difference between men and women (0.24% and 0.23% respectively; p-value = 0.951). The number of late reported incidents increased until 2008 followed by a downward trend until 2011. There were twelve cases of seroconversion in subsequent donations (seven human immunodeficiency virus, four hepatitis B and one hepatitis C) with proven human immunodeficiency virus infection after screening of only one recipient. The twelve cases of seroconversion in donors with subsequent infection proven in one recipient underscores the importance of this tool to increase transfusion safety.Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia 03/2013; 35(3):180-4. DOI:10.5581/1516-8484.20130040
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ABSTRACT: Introduction Previous studies have shown high residual risk of transfusing a blood donation contaminated by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Brazil and motivated the development of a Brazilian platform for simultaneous detection of both viruses by nucleic acid amplification test (NAT) denominated HIV/HCV Bio-Manguinhos/Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ). The objective of this study was to verify seroprevalence, incidence and residual risk for both viruses before and after the implementation of NAT. Methods Over 700,000 blood samples from all blood banks in the southern Brazilian State of Santa Catarina were analyzed during the period between January 2007 and July 2013. Results Compared with the period preceding the NAT screening, HIV prevalence increased from 1.38 to 1.58 per 1,000 donors, HIV incidence rate increased from 1.22 to 1.35 per 1,000 donor-years, and HIV residual risk dropped almost 2.5 times during the NAT period. For HCV, seroprevalence increased from 1.22 to 1.35 per 1,000 donors, incidence dropped from 0.12 to 0.06 per 1,000 donor-years, and residual risk decreased more than 3 times after the NAT implementation. Conclusions NAT reduced the duration of the immunologic window for HIV and HCV, thus corresponding to approximately 2.5- and 3-fold respective residual risk reductions.Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 07/2014; 47(4):418-425. DOI:10.1590/0037-8682-0133-2014 · 0.94 Impact Factor