Patterns of dynamic hyperinflation during exercise and recovery in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
ABSTRACT Not all patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) progressively hyperinflate during symptom limited exercise. The pattern of change in chest wall volumes (Vcw) was investigated in patients with severe COPD who progressively hyperinflate during exercise and those who do not.
Twenty patients with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) 35 (2)% predicted were studied during a ramp incremental cycling test to the limit of tolerance (Wpeak). Changes in Vcw at the end of expiration (EEVcw), end of inspiration (EIVcw), and at total lung capacity (TLCVcw) were computed by optoelectronic plethysmography (OEP) during exercise and recovery.
Two significantly different patterns of change in EEVcw were observed during exercise. Twelve patients had a progressive significant increase in EEVcw during exercise (early hyperinflators, EH) amounting to 750 (90) ml at Wpeak. In contrast, in all eight remaining patients EEVcw remained unchanged up to 66% Wpeak but increased significantly by 210 (80) ml at Wpeak (late hyperinflators, LH). Although at the limit of tolerance the increase in EEVcw was significantly greater in EH, both groups reached similar Wpeak and breathed with a tidal EIVcw that closely approached TLCVcw (EIVcw/TLCVcw 93 (1)% and 93 (3)%, respectively). EEVcw was increased by 254 (130) ml above baseline 3 minutes after exercise only in EH.
Patients with severe COPD exhibit two patterns during exercise: early and late hyperinflation. In those who hyperinflate early, it may take several minutes before the hyperinflation is fully reversed after termination of exercise.
Article: Feasibility study of noninvasive ventilation with helium-oxygen gas flow for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during exercise.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Individually, noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and helium-oxygen gas mixtures (heliox) diminish ventilatory workload and improve exercise tolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). NIV in combination with heliox may have additive effects on exercise tolerance in severe COPD. We assessed the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of heliox and NIV during exercise in patients with severe COPD. Pulmonary rehabilitation facility in an academic tertiary-care medical center. Twelve patients with severe COPD were enrolled. Using a sequential randomized placebo-controlled crossover study design, the patients performed 4 separate constant-work stationary bicycle cardiopulmonary exercise studies at 80% of maximal workload during application of sham NIV, NIV, 60:40 heliox with sham NIV, and 60:40 heliox with NIV. Tolerability, safety, and exercise duration as determined by constant-work cardiopulmonary exercise test were the primary outcome measures. Secondary outcome measures at peak exercise and iso-time included rate of perceived exertion, dyspnea, leg pain, heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, tympanic temperature, and oxyhemoglobin saturation. No adverse effects occurred during or after application of NIV, heliox, or NIV with heliox. Exercise duration using heliox with NIV was significantly longer than both heliox (P = .01) and NIV (P = .007), but not placebo (P = .09). Relative to placebo, all treatment arms permitted lower respiratory rates at peak exercise. Heliox, with or without NIV, was associated with significant improvements in oxyhemoglobin saturation at peak exercise, relative to placebo or NIV alone. The adjunctive use of NIV with heliox during exercise proved both safe and tolerable in patients with severe COPD. The lack of demonstrable efficacy to any of the treatment arms relative to placebo (P = .09) may be the result of the small sample size (ie, type 2 error)-a conclusion emphasized by the large standard deviations and differences in treatment group variances in exercise duration alone.Respiratory care 10/2009; 54(9):1175-82. · 2.01 Impact Factor
Article: Test-Retest Reliability and Physiological Responses Associated with the Steep Ramp Anaerobic Test in Patients with COPD.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Steep Ramp Anaerobic Test (SRAT) was developed as a clinical test of anaerobic leg muscle function for use in determining anaerobic power and in prescribing high-intensity interval exercise in patients with chronic heart failure and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD); however, neither the test-retest reliability nor the physiological qualities of this test have been reported. We therefore, assessed test-retest reliability of the SRAT and the physiological characteristics associated with the test in patients with COPD. 11 COPD patients (mean FEV(1) 43% predicted) performed a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) on Day 1, and an SRAT and a 30-second Wingate anaerobic test (WAT) on each of Days 2 and 3. The SRAT showed a high degree of test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.99; CV = 3.8%, and bias 4.5 W, error -15.3-24.4 W). Power output on the SRAT was 157 W compared to 66 W on the CPET and 231 W on the WAT. Despite the differences in workload, patients exhibited similar metabolic and ventilatory responses between the three tests. Measures of ventilatory constraint correlated more strongly with the CPET than the WAT; however, physiological variables correlated more strongly with the WAT. The SRAT is a highly reliable test that better reflects physiological performance on a WAT power test despite a similar level of ventilatory constraint compared to CPET.Pulmonary medicine. 01/2012; 2012:653831.