Chemical sympathectomy inhibits periodontal disease in Fischer 344 rats.
ABSTRACT The responsiveness of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the hypothalamic--pituitary--adrenal (HPA) axis plays a major role in immune regulation and for the outcome of infections and inflammatory disorders. This study was designed to investigate whether chemical SNS denervation with the noradrenaline-selective neurotoxic drug 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), which destroys peripheral noradrenaline terminals, would influence immune responses to Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, and the progression of ligature-induced periodontal disease in Fischer 344 rats.
6-OHDA (40--60 microg/kg) or vehicle was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) on days 1, 3 and 5, 10 days before application of the ligatures, and thereafter weekly in doses of 80 microg/kg. Periodontal disease was assessed when the ligatures had been in place for 49 days. At 24 and 2 h before decapitation, all rats received LPS (150 microg/kg i.p.) to induce a robust immune and HPA axis response.
The 6-OHDA-treated rats showed significantly reduced bone loss as measured by digital X-rays (p< 0.01), and enhanced levels of the cytokines transforming growth factor-beta (p=0.05) and interleukin-6 (p=0.05), as well as the HPA axis derived hormone corticosterone (p=0.01), induced by LPS stimulation.
6-OHDA-induced chemical sympathectomy inhibits ligature-induced periodontal disease in this model. This effect may be attributable to the well-documented ability of the SNS to regulate immune system function primarily via the adrenergic neurotransmitter noradrenaline released at sympathetic nerve terminals. The enhanced HPA axis activation may be a compensatory response that reduces the T helper (Th)2 to Th1 skewing effect of treatment with 6-OHDA.
Article: Systemic chemical desensitization of peptidergic sensory neurons with resiniferatoxin inhibits experimental periodontitis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The immune system is an important player in the pathophysiology of periodontitis. The brain controls immune responses via neural and hormonal pathways, and brain-neuro-endocrine dysregulation may be a central determinant for pathogenesis. Our current knowledge also emphasizes the central role of sensory nerves. In line with this, we wanted to investigate how desensitization of peptidergic sensory neurons influences the progression of ligature-induced periodontitis, and, furthermore, how selected cytokine and stress hormone responses to Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation are affected. Resiniferatoxin (RTX; 50 μg/kg) or vehicle was injected subcutaneously on days 1, 2, and 3 in stress high responding and periodontitis-susceptible Fischer 344 rats. Periodontitis was induced 2 days thereafter. Progression of the disease was assessed after the ligatures had been in place for 20 days. Two h before decapitation all rats received LPS (150 μg/kg i.p.) to induce a robust immune and stress response. Desensitization with RTX significantly reduced bone loss as measured by digital X-rays. LPS provoked a significantly higher increase in serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, but lower serum levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 and the stress hormone corticosterone. In this model RTX-induced chemical desensitization of sensory peptidergic neurons attenuated ligature-induced periodontitis and promoted a shift towards stronger pro-inflammatory cytokine and weaker stress hormone responses to LPS. The results may partly be explained by the attenuated transmission of immuno-inflammatory signals to the brain. In turn, this may weaken the anti-inflammatory brain-derived pathways.The Open Dentistry Journal 01/2011; 5:1-6.