Over-expression of Aurora-A targets cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein and promotes mRNA polyadenylation of Cdk1 and cyclin B1.
ABSTRACT Aurora-A is a centrosomal serine-threonine kinase that regulates mitosis. Over-expression of Aurora-A has been found in a wide range of tumors and has been implicated in oncogenic transformation. However, how Aurora-A over-expression contributes to promotion of carcinogenesis remains elusive. Immunohistochemical analysis of breast tumors revealed that over-expressed Aurora-A is not restricted to the centrosomes but is also found in the cytoplasm. This over-expressed Aurora-A appeared to be phosphorylated on Thr288, which is known to be required for its enzymatic activation. In analogy to Aurora-A's role in oocyte maturation and the early embryonic cell cycle, here we investigated whether ectopically over-expressed Aurora-A can similarly stimulate polyadenylation of mRNA in human somatic cultured cells by interacting with a human ortholog of cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein, h-CPEB. In vitro experiments revealed that Aurora-A binds directly to, and phosphorylates, h-CPEB. We found that polyadenylation of mRNA tails of cyclin B1 and Cdk1 was synergistically stimulated when Aurora-A and h-CPEB were over-expressed, and they were further promoted in the presence of an Aurora-A activator Ajuba. Our results suggest a function of ectopically over-expressed Aurora-A that might be relevant for carcinogenesis.
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ABSTRACT: In both vertebrates and invertebrates, the expression of several maternal mRNAs is regulated by cytoplasmic polyadenylation. In Xenopus oocytes, where most of the biochemical details of this process have been examined, polyadenylation is controlled by CPEB, a sequence-specific RNA binding protein. The activity of CPEB, which is to recruit cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) and poly(A) polymerase (PAP) into an active cytoplasmic polyadenylation complex, is controlled by Eg2-catalyzed phosphorylation. Soon after CPEB phosphorylation and resulting polyadenylation take place, the interaction between maskin, a CPEB-associated factor, and eIF4E, the cap-binding protein, is destroyed, which results in the recruitment of mRNA into polysomes. Polyadenylation also occurs in maturing mouse oocytes, although the biochemical events that govern the reaction in these cells are not known. In this study, we have examined the phosphorylation of CPEB and have assessed the necessity of this protein for polyadenylation in maturing mouse oocytes. Immunohistochemistry has revealed that all the factors that control polyadenylation and translation in Xenopus oocytes (CPEB, CPSF, PAP, maskin, and IAK1, the murine homologue of Eg2) are also present in the cytoplasm of mouse oocytes. After the induction of maturation, a kinase is activated that phosphorylates CPEB on a critical regulatory residue, an event that is essential for CPEB activity. A peptide that competitively inhibits the activity of IAK1/Eg2 blocks the progression of meiosis in injected oocytes. Finally, a CPEB protein that acts as a dominant negative mutation because it cannot be phosphorylated by IAK1/Eg2, prevents cytoplasmic polyadenylation. These data indicate that cytoplasmic polyadenylation in mouse oocytes is mediated by IAK1/Eg2-catalyzed phosphorylation of CPEB.Development 08/2001; 128(14):2815-22. · 6.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Multiple chromosome abnormalities, including gain of chromosome20q, have been detected frequently in human pancreatic cancers. Overexpression of the STK15/BTAK/Aurora A gene located on chromosome 20q13, which encodes a centrosome-associated serine/threonine kinase, has been shown to induce chromosomal instability, leading to aneuploidy and cell transformation in multiple in vitro experimental systems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression and copy number alteration of STK15 in pancreatic cancer. STK15 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels together with the copy number of STK15 gene was measured in nine pancreatic carcinoma cell lines: (a) HPAF-II; (b) Aspc-1; (c) Panc-1; (d) Panc-3; (e) Panc-28; (f) Panc-48; (g) HS766T; (h) MIAPaCa-2; and (i) BxPc3. STK15 protein expression was also examined in normal pancreatic tissues and tumors by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. STK15 was overexpressed in all of the nine cell lines examined, but gene amplification was infrequent. Western Blot analysis of primary tumor tissues revealed 2-10 times overexpression of STK15 protein compared with normal adjacent tissues from pancreatic cancer patients. Concurrent overexpression of cdc20, an STK15-associated protein, and reduced expression of cdc25, a mitosis-activating protein phosphatase, were detected in the same tumor samples. Elevated STK15 protein expression was detected in 22 of 38 tumor sections (58%) from pancreatic cancer patients. The extent of STK15 expression was not significantly correlated with the size, degree of differentiation, and metastasis status of the tumors. These results show that STK15 is overexpressed in pancreatic tumors and carcinoma cell lines and suggest that overexpression of STK15 may play a role in pancreatic carcinogenesis.Clinical Cancer Research 04/2003; 9(3):991-7. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aurora-A is a serine-threonine kinase implicated in the assembly and maintenance of the mitotic spindle. Here we show that human Aurora-A binds to TPX2, a prominent component of the spindle apparatus. TPX2 was identified by mass spectrometry as a major protein coimmunoprecipitating specifically with Aurora-A from mitotic HeLa cell extracts. Conversely, Aurora-A could be detected in TPX2 immunoprecipitates. This indicates that subpopulations of these two proteins undergo complex formation in vivo. Binding studies demonstrated that the NH2 terminus of TPX2 can directly interact with the COOH-terminal catalytic domain of Aurora-A. Although kinase activity was not required for this interaction, TPX2 was readily phosphorylated by Aurora-A. Upon siRNA-mediated elimination of TPX2 from cells, the association of Aurora-A with the spindle microtubules was abolished, although its association with spindle poles was unaffected. Conversely, depletion of Aurora-A by siRNA had no detectable influence on the localization of TPX2. We propose that human TPX2 is required for targeting Aurora-A kinase to the spindle apparatus. In turn, Aurora-A might regulate the function of TPX2 during spindle assembly.The Journal of Cell Biology 09/2002; 158(4):617-23. · 10.82 Impact Factor