Diet-induced occlusive coronary atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, cardiac dysfunction, and premature death in scavenger receptor class B type I-deficient, hypomorphic apolipoprotein ER61 mice
ABSTRACT Normal chow (low fat)-fed mice deficient in both the HDL receptor SR-BI and apolipoprotein E (SR-BI/apoE dKO) provide a distinctive model of coronary heart disease (CHD). They exhibit early-onset hypercholesterolemia characterized by unesterified cholesterol-rich abnormal lipoproteins (lamellar/vesicular and stacked discoidal particles), occlusive coronary atherosclerosis, spontaneous myocardial infarction, cardiac dysfunction, and premature death ( approximately 6 weeks of age). Mice in which similar features of CHD could be induced with a lipid-rich diet would represent a powerful tool to study CHD.
To generate a diet-inducible model of CHD, we bred SR-BI-deficient (SR-BI KO) mice with hypomorphic apolipoprotein E mice (ApoeR61(h/h)) that express reduced levels of an apoE4-like murine apoE isoform and exhibit diet-induced hypercholesterolemia. When fed a normal chow diet, SR-BI KO/ApoeR61(h/h) mice did not exhibit early-onset atherosclerosis or CHD; the low expression level of the apoE4-like murine apoE was atheroprotective and cardioprotective. However, when fed an atherogenic diet rich in fat, cholesterol, and cholate, they rapidly developed hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, and CHD, a response strikingly similar to that of SR-BI/apoE dKO mice fed a chow diet, and they died 32+/-6 days (50% mortality) after initiation of the high-fat feeding.
The SR-BI KO/ApoeR61(h/h) mouse is a new model of diet-induced occlusive coronary atherosclerosis and CHD (myocardial infarction, cardiac dysfunction and premature death), allowing control of the age of onset, duration, severity, and possibly regression of disease. Thus, SR-BI KO/ApoeR61(h/h) mice have the potential to contribute to our understanding of CHD and its prevention and treatment.
SourceAvailable from: Jörg Stypmann[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this study, we established and validated a time-resolved three-dimensional phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging method (4D PC MRI) on a 9.4 T small-animal MRI system. Herein we present the feasibility of 4D PC MRI in terms of qualitative and quantitative flow pattern analysis in mice with transverse aortic constriction (TAC).MAGMA Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics Biology and Medicine 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10334-014-0466-z · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Using the intrinsic optical properties of collagen and elastin, two-photon microscopy was applied to evaluate the three-dimensional (3D) macromolecular structural development of the mouse thoracic aorta from birth to 60 days old. Baseline development was established in the Scavenger Receptor Class B Type I-Deficient, Hypomorphic Apolipoprotein ER61 (SR-BI KO/ApoeR61(h/h)) mouse in preparation for modeling atherosclerosis. Precise dissection enabled direct observation of the artery wall in situ. En-face, optical sectioning of the aorta provided a novel assessment of the macromolecular structural development. During aortic development, the undulating lamellar elastin layers compressed consistent with the increases in mean aortic pressure with age. In parallel, a net increase in overall wall thickness (p<0.05, in day 60 compared with day 1 mice) occurred with age whereas the ratio of the tunicas adventitia and media to full aortic thickness remained nearly constant across age groups (similar to 1:2.6, respectively). Histochemical analyses by brightfield microscopy and ultrastructure validated structural proteins and lipid deposition findings derived from two-photon microscopy. Development was associated with decreased decorin but not biglycan proteoglycan expression. This non-destructive 3D in situ approach revealed the aortic wall microstructure development. Coupling this approach with the intrinsic optical properties of the macromolecules may provide unique vascular wall 3D structure in many pathological conditions, including aortic atherosclerosis, dissections and aneurysms.Acta histochemica et cytochemica official journal of the Japan Society of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 10/2014; 63(1). DOI:10.1369/0022155414559590 · 1.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We investigated the effect of subtotal nephrectomy on the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in mice deficient in all three nitric oxide synthases (NOSs). Two-thirds nephrectomy (NX) was performed on male triple NOSs(-/-) mice. The 2/3NX caused sudden cardiac death due to AMI in the triple NOSs(-/-) mice as early as 4months after the surgery. The 2/3NX triple NOSs(-/-) mice exhibited electrocardiographic ST-segment elevation, reduced heart rate variability, echocardiographic regional wall motion abnormality, and accelerated coronary arteriosclerotic lesion formation. Cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and hyperglycemia), an increased number of circulating bone marrow-derived vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) progenitor cells (a pro-arteriosclerotic factor), and cardiac up-regulation of stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1α (a chemotactic factor of the progenitor cells) were noted in the 2/3NX triple NOSs(-/-) mice, and were associated with significant increases in plasma angiotensin II levels (a marker of activation of the renin-angiotensin system) and urinary 8-isoprostane levels (a marker of oxidative stress). Importantly, combined treatment with a clinical dosage of an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, irbesartan, and a calcium channel antagonist, amlodipine, markedly prevented coronary arteriosclerotic lesion formation and the incidence of AMI, and improved the prognosis of those mice, along with ameliorating all those pro-arteriosclerotic parameters. The 2/3NX triple NOSs(-/-) mouse is a new experimentally useful model of AMI. Activation of the renin-angiotensin system, oxidative stress, cardiovascular risk factors, and SDF-1α-induced recruitment of bone marrow-derived VSMC progenitor cells appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of AMI in this model.Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 09/2014; 77. DOI:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2014.09.021 · 5.22 Impact Factor