Diet-Induced Occlusive Coronary Atherosclerosis, Myocardial Infarction, Cardiac Dysfunction, and Premature Death in Scavenger Receptor Class B Type I-Deficient, Hypomorphic Apolipoprotein ER61 Mice

Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
Circulation (Impact Factor: 14.43). 07/2005; 111(25):3457-64. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.104.523563
Source: PubMed


Normal chow (low fat)-fed mice deficient in both the HDL receptor SR-BI and apolipoprotein E (SR-BI/apoE dKO) provide a distinctive model of coronary heart disease (CHD). They exhibit early-onset hypercholesterolemia characterized by unesterified cholesterol-rich abnormal lipoproteins (lamellar/vesicular and stacked discoidal particles), occlusive coronary atherosclerosis, spontaneous myocardial infarction, cardiac dysfunction, and premature death ( approximately 6 weeks of age). Mice in which similar features of CHD could be induced with a lipid-rich diet would represent a powerful tool to study CHD.
To generate a diet-inducible model of CHD, we bred SR-BI-deficient (SR-BI KO) mice with hypomorphic apolipoprotein E mice (ApoeR61(h/h)) that express reduced levels of an apoE4-like murine apoE isoform and exhibit diet-induced hypercholesterolemia. When fed a normal chow diet, SR-BI KO/ApoeR61(h/h) mice did not exhibit early-onset atherosclerosis or CHD; the low expression level of the apoE4-like murine apoE was atheroprotective and cardioprotective. However, when fed an atherogenic diet rich in fat, cholesterol, and cholate, they rapidly developed hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, and CHD, a response strikingly similar to that of SR-BI/apoE dKO mice fed a chow diet, and they died 32+/-6 days (50% mortality) after initiation of the high-fat feeding.
The SR-BI KO/ApoeR61(h/h) mouse is a new model of diet-induced occlusive coronary atherosclerosis and CHD (myocardial infarction, cardiac dysfunction and premature death), allowing control of the age of onset, duration, severity, and possibly regression of disease. Thus, SR-BI KO/ApoeR61(h/h) mice have the potential to contribute to our understanding of CHD and its prevention and treatment.

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    • "SR-BI/apoE double KO mice rapidly (within 6 weeks of age) develop occlusive coronary artery (CA) atherosclerosis and exhibit extensive myocardial fibrosis, ECG abnormalities, cardiac enlargement, reduced heart function (ejection fraction, contractility and relaxation) and early death [10], [21]–[23]. The SR-BI−/−apoE-R61h/h (hypomorphic) mouse is a related model [14] that lacks SR-BI and has a targeted mutation in the apoE gene that encodes a Thr61Arg point mutant form of apoE that exhibits reduced clearance [24], [25]. Furthermore, the apoE expression level is only 2–5% of normal level due to the insertion of a neomycin resistance gene cassette in the third intron of the apoE gene [25]. "
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    ABSTRACT: SR-BI deficient mice that are also hypomorphic for apolipoprotein E expression develop diet induced occlusive coronary artery atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction and early death. To test the role of SR-BI in bone marrow derived cells, we used bone marrow transplantation to generate SR-BI-null; apoE-hypomorphic mice in which SR-BI expression was restored solely in bone marrow derived cells. SR-BI-null; apoE-hypomorphic mice were transplanted with SR-BI(+/+)apoE-hypomorphic, or control, autologous SR-BI-null; apoE-hypomorphic bone marrow. Four weeks later, mice were fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol, cholate-containing diet to induce coronary artery atherosclerosis. Mice transplanted with autologous bone marrow developed extensive aortic atherosclerosis and severe occlusive coronary artery atherosclerosis after 4 weeks of feeding. This was accompanied by myocardial fibrosis and increased heart weights. In contrast, restoration of SR-BI expression in bone marrow derived-cells reduced diet induced aortic and coronary artery atherosclerosis, myocardial fibrosis and the increase in heart weights in SR-BI-null; apoE-hypomorphic mice. Restoration of SR-BI in bone marrow derived cells did not, however, affect steady state lipoprotein cholesterol levels, but did reduce plasma levels of IL-6. Monocytes from SR-BI-null mice exhibited a greater capacity to bind to VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 than those from SR-BI(+/+) mice. Furthermore, restoration of SR-BI expression in bone marrow derived cells attenuated monocyte recruitment into atherosclerotic plaques in mice fed high fat, high cholesterol cholate containing diet. These data demonstrate directly that SR-BI in bone marrow-derived cells protects against both aortic and CA atherosclerosis.
    PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(8):e72492. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0072492 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "The 65 kDa MMP-2 isoform was initially detected in mitochondria-enriched preparations from aging wild type mice and in mitochondrial preparations of hypomorphic ApoE mice expressing an ApoE-like form of mouse ApoE (also referred to as “HypoE” mice). These mice are also deficient in the SF-B1 receptor (ApoER61h/h/SR-B1−/− mice) and represent a model of diet-induced coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction [1], [3]. Furthermore, the NTT-MMP-2 isoform was detected within mitochondrial preparations from cardiac-specific transgenic mice expressing the full length, secreted 68 kDa constitutively active isoform of MMP-2 in the setting of advanced ventricular systolic failure [1], [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is increasingly recognized as a major contributor to progressive cardiac injury within the setting of ischemia-reperfusion injury and ischemic ventricular remodeling. A common feature of these conditions is an increase in oxidative stress, a process that engages multiple pro-inflammatory and innate immunity cascades. We recently reported on the identification and characterization of an intracellular isoform of MMP-2 generated by oxidative stress-mediated activation of an alternative promoter located within the first intron of the MMP-2 gene. Transcription from this site generates an N-terminal truncated 65 kDa isoform of MMP-2 (NTT-MMP-2) that lacks the secretory sequence and the inhibitory prodomain region. The NTT-MMP-2 isoform is intracellular, enzymatically active and localizes in part to mitochondria. Expression of the NTT-MMP-2 isoform triggers Nuclear Factor of Activated T-cell (NFAT) and NF-κB signaling with the expression of a highly defined innate immunity transcriptome, including Interleukin-6, MCP-1, IRF-7 and pro-apoptotic transcripts. To determine the functional significance of the NTT-MMP-2 isoform in vivo we generated cardiac-specific NTT-MMP-2 transgenic mice. These mice developed progressive cardiomyocyte and ventricular hypertrophy associated with systolic heart failure. Further, there was evidence for cardiomyocyte apoptosis and myocardial infiltration with mononuclear cells. The NTT-MMP-2 transgenic hearts also demonstrated more severe injury following ex vivo ischemia-reperfusion injury. We conclude that a novel intracellular MMP-2 isoform induced by oxidant stress directly contributes, in the absence of superimposed injury, to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. inflammation, systolic heart failure and enhanced susceptibility to ischemia-reperfusion injury.
    PLoS ONE 07/2013; 8(7):e68154. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0068154 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "We also examined mitochondria-enriched preparations from hypomorphic ApoER61h/h/SR-BI KO mice. These mice express very low levels of ApoE, and coupled with the knockout of the SR-B1 scavenger receptor, are a reproducible model of accelerated coronary atherogenesis and myocardial infarction when placed on a high fat diet for thirty days [12]. While a 65 kDa MMP-2 isoform was not detected in the mitochondria-enriched fractions from mice maintained on a normal diet, (Figure 1, Panel I., C), it was readily detected, along with a less abundant 62 kDa isoform, in the mitochondria-enriched fractions of mice maintained for 30 days on the atherogenic diet. "
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    ABSTRACT: Experimental and clinical evidence has pinpointed a critical role for matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in ischemic ventricular remodeling and systolic heart failure. Prior studies have demonstrated that transgenic expression of the full-length, 68 kDa, secreted form of MMP-2 induces severe systolic failure. These mice also had unexpected and severe mitochondrial structural abnormalities and dysfunction. We hypothesized that an additional intracellular isoform of MMP-2, which affects mitochondrial function is induced under conditions of systolic failure-associated oxidative stress. Western blots of cardiac mitochondria from the full length MMP-2 transgenics, ageing mice and a model of accelerated atherogenesis revealed a smaller 65 kDa MMP-2 isoform. Cultured cardiomyoblasts subjected to transient oxidative stress generated the 65 kDa MMP-2 isoform. The 65 kDa MMP-2 isoform was also induced by hypoxic culture of cardiomyoblasts. Genomic database analysis of the MMP-2 gene mapped transcriptional start sites and RNA transcripts induced by hypoxia or epigenetic modifiers within the first intron of the MMP-2 gene. Translation of these transcripts yields a 65 kDa N-terminal truncated isoform beginning at M(77), thereby deleting the signal sequence and inhibitory prodomain. Cellular trafficking studies demonstrated that the 65 kDa MMP-2 isoform is not secreted and is present in cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions, while the full length 68 kDa isoform was found only in the extracellular space. Expression of the 65 kDa MMP-2 isoform induced mitochondrial-nuclear stress signaling with activation of the pro-inflammatory NF-κB, NFAT and IRF transcriptional pathways. By microarray, the 65 kDa MMP-2 induces an innate immunity transcriptome, including viral stress response genes, innate immunity transcription factor IRF7, chemokines and pro-apoptosis genes. A novel N-terminal truncated intracellular isoform of MMP-2 is induced by oxidative stress. This isoform initiates a primary innate immune response that may contribute to progressive cardiac dysfunction in the setting of ischemia and systolic failure.
    PLoS ONE 04/2012; 7(4):e34177. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0034177 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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