Antiviral T cell responses: phalanx or multipronged attack?

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Weill Medical College, Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA.
Journal of Experimental Medicine (Impact Factor: 12.52). 07/2005; 201(12):1881-4. DOI: 10.1084/jem.20050928
Source: PubMed


Around 700 BCE, a new military formation called the phalanx was established in ancient Greece: a tight column of heavy infantry carrying long spears, or pikes, used in a single prong of attack. Later, in the battle of Marathon described by Herodotus, the Greeks learned the advantages of multipronged attacks, a strategy still used in modern warfare. Is the immune system similar in its approach to combatting pathogens or tumors?

Download full-text


Available from: David N Posnett, Oct 05, 2015
35 Reads
  • Source
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The application of code division multiple access (CDMA) techniques to a fiber-optic communication systems has aroused much interest. The simplest receiver is the correlation receiver but its performance deteriorates rapidly as the number of users increases. Thus, it is highly desirable to have a better receiver structure for such systems. Many multiuser detection schemes have been proposed. However, multiuser detectors require knowledge of some parameters such as the signature sequence of other users. It would thus be a great advantage if this requirement can be removed. In this paper, we propose a blind receiver that does not require knowledge of the users' system parameters except for those of the desired user. Thereby, significant reduction of the receiver complexity is possible. Performance of the proposed receiver is investigated and comparison of several receivers for OCDMA systems is also presented
    Global Telecommunications Conference, 1997. GLOBECOM '97., IEEE; 12/1997
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The requirement for costimulation in antiviral CD8+ T cell responses has been actively investigated for acutely resolved viral infections, but it is less defined for CD8+ T cell responses to persistent virus infection. Using mouse polyoma virus (PyV) as a model of low-level persistent virus infection, we asked whether blockade of the CD40 ligand (CD40L) and CD28 costimulatory pathways impacts the magnitude and function of the PyV-specific CD8+ T response, as well as the humoral response and viral control during acute and persistent phases of infection. Costimulation blockade or gene knockout of either CD28 or CD40L substantially dampened the magnitude of the acute CD8+ T cell response; simultaneous CD28 and CD40L blockade severely depressed the acute T cell response, altered the cell surface phenotype of PyV-specific CD8+ T cells, decreased PyV VP1-specific serum IgG titers, and resulted in an increase in viral DNA levels in multiple organs. CD28 and CD40L costimulation blockade during acute infection also diminished the memory PyV-specific CD8+ T cell response and serum IgG titer, but control of viral persistence varied between mouse strains and among organs. Interestingly, we found that CD28 and CD40L costimulation is dispensable for generating and/or maintaining PyV-specific CD8+ T cells during persistent infection; however, blockade of CD27 and CD28 costimulation in persistently infected mice caused a reduction in PyV-specific CD8+ T cells. Taken together, these data indicate that CD8+ T cells primed within the distinct microenvironments of acute vs persistent virus infection differ in their costimulation requirements.
    The Journal of Immunology 03/2006; 176(3):1814-24. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.176.3.1814 · 4.92 Impact Factor
Show more