Vitamin D and Diabetes

Laboratory of Experimental Medicine and Endocrinology (LEGENDO), Catholic University of Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000, Leuven, Belgium.
Diabetologia (Impact Factor: 6.67). 08/2005; 48(7):1247-57. DOI: 10.1007/s00125-005-1802-7
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Vitamin D deficiency predisposes individuals to type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and receptors for its activated form-1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-have been identified in both beta cells and immune cells. Vitamin D deficiency has been shown to impair insulin synthesis and secretion in humans and in animal models of diabetes, suggesting a role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, epidemiological studies suggest a link between vitamin D deficiency in early life and the later onset of type 1 diabetes. In some populations, type 1 diabetes is associated with certain polymorphisms within the vitamin D receptor gene. In studies in nonobese diabetic mice, pharmacological doses of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, or its structural analogues, have been shown to delay the onset of diabetes, mainly through immune modulation. Vitamin D deficiency may, therefore, be involved in the pathogenesis of both forms of diabetes, and a better understanding of the mechanisms involved could lead to the development of preventive strategies.

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Available from: Conny Gysemans, Sep 16, 2014
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    • "The expression of calbindin-D28K (vitamin D dependent on the union of proteins and calcium) has demonstrated a protective effect on beta cells from cytokine mediated cell death, reducing the risk of T2DM [88]. There are few studies in humans associating vitamin D and chronic inflammatory status of T2DM patients; however, the evidence suggests that vitamin D can improve insulin sensitivity and promote pancreatic β-cell survival by modulating the effects of cytokines and nuclear transcription factors such as NF-κB [90]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic diseases have become one of the most important public health problems, due to their high costs for treatment and prevention. Until now, researchers have considered that the etiology of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is multifactorial. Recently, the study of the innate immune system has offered an explanation model of the pathogenesis of T2DM. On the other hand, there is evidence about the beneficial effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) n-3 and n-6 in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases including diabetes. Furthermore, high vitamin D plasmatic concentrations have been associated with the best performance of pancreatic β cells and the improving of this disease. In conclusion, certain fatty acids in the adequate proportion as well as 25-hydroxivitamin D can modulate the inflammatory response in diabetic people, modifying the evolution of this disease.
    Journal of Immunology Research 02/2014; 2014(3):860703. DOI:10.1155/2014/860703 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    • "Vitamin D is a fundamental micronutrient with major implications for human health [1]. Its insufficiency has been reported to be a quite common finding in type 2 diabetic patients [2]–[4]. Human and animal studies have shown a negative correlation between serum levels of vitamin D and both serum glucose and insulin levels, whereas the correlation with insulin sensitivity was positive [5], [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: A correlation between glucose control and 25(OH)D metabolism has been suggested by previous studies. However, this correlation has not yet been evaluated considering the impact of chronic complications of type 2 diabetes, especially the presence of nephropathy. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the correlation between A1C and 25(OH)D in a well characterized cohort of type 2 diabetic patients. We cross-sectionally examined the association between A1C and serum 25(OH) D in 715 type 2 diabetic patients attending our clinic during the years 2011-2012. The average age was 68±12 years (range 26-94 years). The relation between A1C and serum 25(OH)D levels was modelled by multiple linear regression analyses. Serum 25(OH)D levels were inversely associated with A1C levels (r = -0.116, p = .003). This relation maintains its independence in the multivariate analysis after adjusting for age, sex, A1C, BMI, treatment and duration of diabetes and nephropathy. In type 2 diabetic patients, high A1C levels are associated with low concentrations of serum 25(OH)D independently of duration of diabetes, diabetic treatment and nephropathy. Future studies are needed to clarify the biological relation between glucose control and vitamin D metabolism in type 2 diabetes.
    PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e82733. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0082733 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Accumulating evidence indicates that vitamin D may be useful in the prevention and treatment of DM. Vitamin D supplementation in participants with vitamin D deficiency has been shown to result in improved glucose tolerance [32]. The mechanisms underlying the potential association of DM with the combination of 25(OH)D and arsenic remain to be clarified. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008–2009 on the combination of vitamin D deficiency and arsenic exposure on diabetes mellitus (DM) in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods This study was based on data obtained from the KNHANES 2008–2009, which was conducted for 3 years (2007–2009) using a rolling sampling design that involved a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the non-institutionalized civilian population in South Korea. Results Data analysis revealed that subjects who showed both vitamin D levels in the 1st quartile (Q) and urinary arsenic levels in the 4th Q, had a 302% increased risk of having DM, as compared with those whose vitamin D and urinary arsenic levels were in the 4th Q and 1st Q, respectively. Conclusion The present study reconfirmed an association of DM with low vitamin D levels and arsenic exposure, and further showed a combination of vitamin D deficiency and arsenic exposure on DM in the general Korean population. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing a combination of vitamin D deficiency and arsenic exposure on DM. The present findings have important public health implications.
    05/2013; 25(1). DOI:10.1186/2052-4374-25-7
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