Review paper: Surface Modification for Bioimplants: The Role of Laser Surface Engineering

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 37996, USA.
Journal of Biomaterials Applications (Impact Factor: 2.2). 08/2005; 20(1):5-50. DOI: 10.1177/0885328205052974
Source: PubMed


Often hard implants undergo detachment from the host tissue due to inadequate biocompatibility and poor osteointegration. Changing surface chemistry and physical topography of the surface influences biocompatibility. At present, the understanding of biocompatibility of both virgin and modified surfaces of bioimplant materials is limited and a great deal of research is being dedicated to this aspect. In view of this, the current review casts new light on research related to the surface modification of biomaterials, especially materials for prosthetic applications. A brief overview of the major surface modification techniques has been presented, followed by an in-depth discussion on laser surface modifications that have been explored so far along with those that hold tremendous potential for bioimplant applications.

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    • "Just like other biomaterials, DMLS biomaterials need to present good mechanical and corrosion properties, high wear resistance as well as to improve bioactivity and osseointegration of the metal implant. However, as Kurella and Dahotre [13] clearly expressed 0264-1275/Ó 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. "
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    ABSTRACT: Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is a powerful tool to produce titanium based biomaterials because the ease to convert 3D medical imaging data into solid objects with excellent mechanical and corrosion properties. DMLS samples can be functionalized by anodizing, allowing the growth of titanium oxide layers of enhanced properties. In the present paper, a complete characterization of the microstructure, mechanical properties and particularly, the corrosion behavior has been carried out to assess their possible use as biomaterial. The results of the anodized scaffolds are very promising, showing a Young Modulus near to the cortical bone and a low corrosion rate, ensuring their suitability for medical applications.
    Materials & design 10/2015; 83:6-13. DOI:10.1016/j.matdes.2015.05.078 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    • "The adhesion strength was also found to be increased in laser irradiated surface [22]. In the past, laser surface texturing was successfully applied to improve wettability, protein and cell adhesion [12] [23] [24]. Hence, from the above mentioned discussions it may be concluded that in the past several studies have been done on the effect of laser surface texturing on biocompatibility like protein adsorption , cell attachments, proliferation, etc. "

    Applied Surface Science 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.apsusc.2015.08.255 · 2.71 Impact Factor
    • "Unfortunately, concerns related to Co and Cr ion release in vivo is a bigger problem today due to their toxic nature. Hence, there is a need for surface modification to improve the wear resistance of Ti based implant materials (Kurella and Dahotre, 2005; Bandyopadhyay et al., 2011). In the past, various approaches have been researched upon to increase surface hardness and wear resistance of Ti. "
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    ABSTRACT: Laser remelting of commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) surface was done in a nitrogen rich inert atmosphere to form in situ TiN/Ti composite coating. Laser surface remelting was performed at two different laser powers of 425 W and 475 W. At each power, samples were fabricated with one or two laser scans. The resultant material was a nitride rich in situ coating that was created on the surface. The cross sections revealed a graded microstructure. There was presence of nitride rich dendrites dispersed in α-Ti matrix at the uppermost region. The structure gradually changed with lesser dendrites and more heat affected α-Ti phase maintaining a smooth interface. With increasing laser power, the dendrites appeared to be larger in size. Samples with two laser scans showed discontinuous dendrites and more α-Ti phase as compared to the samples with one laser scan. The resultant composite of TiN along with Ti2N in α-Ti showed substantially higher hardness and wear resistance than the untreated CP-Ti substrate. Coefficient of friction was also found to reduce due to surface nitridation. Leaching of Ti4+ ions during wear test in DI water medium was found to reduce due to laser surface nitriding.
    Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials 08/2015; 53. DOI:10.1016/j.jmbbm.2015.08.013 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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