On the suppression of plasma nonesterified fatty acids by insulin during enhanced intravascular lipolysis in humans
ABSTRACT During the fasting state, insulin reduces nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) appearance in the systemic circulation mostly by suppressing intracellular lipolysis in the adipose tissue. In the postprandial state, insulin may also control NEFA appearance through enhanced trapping into the adipose tissue of NEFA derived from intravascular triglyceride lipolysis. To determine the contribution of suppression of intracellular lipolysis in the modulation of plasma NEFA metabolism by insulin during enhanced intravascular triglyceride lipolysis, 10 healthy nonobese subjects underwent pancreatic clamps at fasting vs. high physiological insulin level with intravenous infusion of heparin plus Intralipid. Nicotinic acid was administered orally during the last 2 h of each 4-h clamp to inhibit intracellular lipolysis and assess insulin's effect on plasma NEFA metabolism independently of its effect on intracellular lipolysis. Stable isotope tracers of palmitate, acetate, and glycerol were used to assess plasma NEFA metabolism and total triglyceride lipolysis in each participant. The glycerol appearance rate was similar during fasting vs. high insulin level, but plasma NEFA levels were significantly lowered by insulin. Nicotinic acid significantly blunted the insulin-mediated suppression of plasma palmitate appearance and oxidation rates by approximately 60 and approximately 70%, respectively. In contrast, nicotinic acid did not affect the marked stimulation of palmitate clearance by insulin. Thus most of the insulin-mediated reduction of plasma NEFA appearance and oxidation can be explained by suppression of intracellular lipolysis during enhanced intravascular triglyceride lipolysis in healthy humans. Our results also suggest that insulin may affect plasma NEFA clearance independently of the suppression of intracellular lipolysis.
SourceAvailable from: Sebastien M Labbe
Dataset: J. Physiol. (Lond.) 2014 Blondin
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ABSTRACT: Cold exposure stimulates the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), triggering the activation of cold-defense responses and mobilizing substrates to fuel the thermogenic processes. Although these processes have been investigated independently, the physiological interaction and coordinated contribution of the tissues involved in producing heat or mobilizing substrates has never been investigated in humans. Using [U-13C]-palmitate and [3-3H]-glucose tracer methodologies coupled with PET using 11C-acetate and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG), we examined the relationship between whole body sympathetically-induced WAT lipolysis and BAT metabolism and mapped the skeletal muscle shivering and metabolic activation pattern during a mild, acute cold exposure designed to minimize shivering response in 12 lean healthy men. Cold-induced increase in whole-body oxygen consumption was not independently associated with BAT volume of activity, BAT oxidative metabolism or muscle metabolism or shivering intensity, but rather, depended on the sum of responses of these two metabolic tissues. Cold-induced increase in NEFA appearance rate was strongly associated with the volume of metabolically active BAT (r = 0.64, P = 0.04), total BAT oxidative metabolism (r = 0.72, P = 0.02) and BAT glucose uptake (r = 0.72, P = 0.02), but not muscle glucose metabolism. The total glucose uptake was more than one order of magnitude greater in skeletal muscles compared to BAT during cold exposure (675±124 μmol·min−1 vs. 16±8 μmol·min−1, respectively, P < 0.001). Glucose uptake demonstrated that deeper, centrally located muscles of the neck, back and inner thigh were the greatest contributors of muscle glucose uptake during cold exposure due to their more important shivering response. In summary, these results demonstrate for the first time that the increase in plasma NEFA appearance from WAT lipolysis is closely associated with BAT metabolic activation upon acute cold exposure in healthy men. In humans, muscle glucose utilization during shivering contributes to a much greater extent than BAT to systemic glucose utilization during acute cold exposure.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reservedThe Journal of Physiology 11/2014; DOI:10.1113/jphysiol.2014.283598 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Free fatty acids (FFAs) cause insulin resistance and are often elevated in obesity. Chronic ingestion of diets rich in saturated fat induces more insulin resistance than diets rich in unsaturated fat, however, it remains unclear whether different FFAs cause distinct levels of insulin resistance in the short-term, which is relevant to the feeding and fasting cycle. Protein kinase C (PKC)-δ is implicated in hepatic insulin resistance. Therefore, we investigated the effects of short-term elevation of fatty acids with different degrees of unsaturation on hepatic insulin action and liver PKC-δ membrane translocation, a marker of activation. Triglyceride emulsions of Soybean Oil+Heparin (polyunsaturated (POLY)), Olive Oil+Heparin (monounsaturated (MONO)), Lard Oil+Heparin (saturated (SATU)), or saline (SAL) were infused intravenously for 7h to elevate plasma FFA concentrations ~3-4 fold in rats. During the last 2h of infusion, a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with tritiated glucose methodology was performed to examine hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity. Surprisingly, SATU, MONO, and POLY impaired peripheral insulin sensitivity (glucose utilization divided by insulin) to a similar extent. Furthermore, all lipids induced a similar degree of hepatic insulin resistance compared to SAL. Although there were changes in hepatic content of lipid metabolites, there were no significant differences in liver PKC-δ membrane translocation across fat groups. In summary, in the short-term, FFAs with different degrees of unsaturation impair peripheral insulin sensitivity and induce hepatic insulin resistance as well as hepatic PKC-δ translocation to the same extent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Metabolism: clinical and experimental 10/2014; 64(2). DOI:10.1016/j.metabol.2014.10.019 · 3.61 Impact Factor