Article

Derivation of Multipotent Mesenchymal Precursors from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, United States
PLoS Medicine (Impact Factor: 14). 07/2005; 2(6):e161. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0020161
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Human embryonic stem cells provide access to the earliest stages of human development and may serve as a source of specialized cells for regenerative medicine. Thus, it becomes crucial to develop protocols for the directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells into tissue-restricted precursors.
Here, we present culture conditions for the derivation of unlimited numbers of pure mesenchymal precursors from human embryonic stem cells and demonstrate multilineage differentiation into fat, cartilage, bone, and skeletal muscle cells.
Our findings will help to elucidate the mechanism of mesoderm specification during embryonic stem cell differentiation and provide a platform to efficiently generate specialized human mesenchymal cell types for future clinical applications.

1 Follower
 · 
102 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Outcomes following peripheral nerve injury remain frustratingly poor. The reasons for this are multifactorial, although maintaining a growth permissive environment in the distal nerve stump following repair is arguably the most important. The optimal environment for axonal regeneration relies on the synthesis and release of many biochemical mediators that are temporally and spatially regulated with a high level of incompletely understood complexity. The Schwann cell (SC) has emerged as a key player in this process. Prolonged periods of distal nerve stump denervation, characteristic of large gaps and proximal injuries, have been associated with a reduction in SC number and ability to support regenerating axons. Cell based therapy offers a potential therapy for the improvement of outcomes following peripheral nerve reconstruction. Stem cells have the potential to increase the number of SCs and prolong their ability to support regeneration. They may also have the ability to rescue and replenish populations of chromatolytic and apoptotic neurons following axotomy. Finally, they can be used in non-physiologic ways to preserve injured tissues such as denervated muscle while neuronal ingrowth has not yet occurred. Aside from stem cell type, careful consideration must be given to differentiation status, how stem cells are supported following transplantation and how they will be delivered to the site of injury. It is the aim of this article to review current opinions on the strategies of stem cell based therapy for the augmentation of peripheral nerve regeneration.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Constraints for the application of MSCs for bone reconstruction include restricted self-renewal and limited cell amounts. iPSC technology presents advantages over MSCs, providing homogeneous cellular populations with prolonged self-renewal and higher plasticity. However, it is unknown if the osteogenic potential of iPSCs differs from that of MSCs and if it depends on the iPSCs originating cellular source. Here, we compared the in vitro osteogenesis between stem cells from human deciduous teeth (SHED) and MSC-like cells from iPSCs from SHED (iPS-SHED) and from human dermal fibroblasts (iPS-FIB). MSC-like cells from iPS-SHED and iPS-FIB displayed fibroblast-like morphology, downregulation of pluripotency markers and upregulation of mesenchymal markers. Comparative in vitro osteogenesis analysis showed higher osteogenic potential in MSC-like cells from iPS-SHED followed by MSC-like cells from iPS-FIB and SHED. CD105 expression, reported to be inversely correlated with osteogenic potential in MSCs, did not display this pattern, considering that SHED presented lower CD105 expression. Higher osteogenic potential of MSC-like cells from iPS-SHED may be due to cellular homogeneity and/or to donor tissue epigenetic memory. Our findings strengthen the rationale for the use of iPSCs in bone bioengineering. Unveiling the molecular basis behind these differences is important for a thorough use of iPSCs in clinical scenarios.
    12/2014; 2015. DOI:10.1155/2015/249098
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising source of cells for regenerative therapies. Although they can be isolated easily from several tissues, cell expansion is limited since their properties are lost with successive passages. Hence, pluripotent derived MSCs (PD-MSCs) arise as a suitable alternative for MSC production. Nevertheless, at present, PD-MSC derivation protocols are either expensive or not suitable for clinical purposes. Methods: In this work we present a therapy-grade, inexpensive and simple protocol to derive MSCs from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) based on the use of platelet lysate (PL) as medium supplement. Results: We showed that the PD-MSC PL expressed multiple MSC markers, including CD90, CD73, CD105, CD166, and CD271, among others. These cells also show multilineage differentiation ability and immunomodulatory effects on pre-stimulated lymphocytes. Thorough characterization of these cells showed that a PD-MSC PL resembles an umbilical cord (UC) MSC and differs from a PSC in surface marker and extracellular matrix proteins and integrin expression. Moreover, the OCT-4 promoter is re-methylated with mesenchymal differentiation comparable with the methylation levels of UC-MSCs and fibroblasts. Lastly, the use of PL-supplemented medium generates significantly more MSCs than the use of fetal bovine serum. Conclusions: This protocol can be used to generate a large amount of PD-MSCs with low cost and is compatible with clinical therapies.
    Stem Cell Research & Therapy 01/2015; DOI:10.1186/scrt540 · 4.63 Impact Factor

Full-text (3 Sources)

Download
1 Download
Available from
Mar 20, 2015