Evidence Based Physical Activity for School-age Youth

Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia, USA.
Journal of Pediatrics (Impact Factor: 3.74). 07/2005; 146(6):732-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2005.01.055
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To review the effects of physical activity on health and behavior outcomes and develop evidence-based recommendations for physical activity in youth.
A systematic literature review identified 850 articles; additional papers were identified by the expert panelists. Articles in the identified outcome areas were reviewed, evaluated and summarized by an expert panelist. The strength of the evidence, conclusions, key issues, and gaps in the evidence were abstracted in a standardized format and presented and discussed by panelists and organizational representatives.
Most intervention studies used supervised programs of moderate to vigorous physical activity of 30 to 45 minutes duration 3 to 5 days per week. The panel believed that a greater amount of physical activity would be necessary to achieve similar beneficial effects on health and behavioral outcomes in ordinary daily circumstances (typically intermittent and unsupervised activity).
School-age youth should participate daily in 60 minutes or more of moderate to vigorous physical activity that is developmentally appropriate, enjoyable, and involves a variety of activities.

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Available from: François Trudeau, Aug 30, 2015
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    • "The benefits of children's physical activity (PA) participation are indisputable (Strong et al., 2005) and the importance of an effective PA-promotion intervention among youth for long-term health effects has been recognized (Van Beurden et al., 2003). Increased PA is associated with a reduction of the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (Vuori, 2010) and obesity (Hills & Byrne, 2006) and improves mental health of adolescents (Kantomaa et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Pre-school age is important for developing healthy attitudes towards physical activity (PA). However, research on pre-schoolers’ pedometer-determined PA is limited. Aim: To describe pre-schoolers’ ambulatory activity; investigate step count differences in respect to Body Mass Index (BMI) categories and examine the prevalence of obesity. Subjects and methods: Pre-school aged children (n = 250; 5.5 ± 0.4 years) from Komotini (Greece) wore Omron HJ-720IT-E2 pedometers for 10 consecutive days. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Results: Three-way repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that children performed more steps on weekdays than during weekends (p < 0.001) and during leisure time than school (p < 0.001). Significant differences appeared between normal and obese children’s counts on weekdays (p < 0.001), weekend days (p < 0.05), during school (p < 0.001), after school (p < 0.005) and in weekly steps (p < 0.005). No gender differences were detected. Moreover, according to a sample t-test analysis, children’s daily steps were significantly different from the 10 000 steps/day guideline, while obesity prevalence was 15.6%. Conclusion: School-based ambulatory activity is lower than after school ambulatory activity, independent of BMI-category and gender, although obese children demonstrated fewer steps. Taking into account the high rate of both the obesity prevalence and children not meeting the 10 000 steps/day guideline, the need for preventive policies becomes obvious.
    Annals of Human Biology 08/2015; 42(3):231-236. DOI:10.3109/03014460.2014.943286 · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    • "importance that people gave to a healthy body as they thought it was inextricably linked to a healthy mind. Nowadays, science has come to prove that even a little exercise before a course or a job can enhance memory and help us perform better (e.g., Strong et al. 2005). Numerous intervention studies have shown the positive acute and chronic effects of exercise on cognitive functioning in children, adolescents, young, and old adults (for reviews, see Fedewa and Ahn 2011; Sibley and Etnier 2003; Tomporowski et al. 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Research has demonstrated that physical activity involving gross motor activities can lead to better cognitive functioning and higher academic achievement scores. In addition, research within the theoretical framework of embodied cognition has shown that embodying knowledge through the use of more subtle motor activities, such as task-relevant gestures, has a positive effect on learning. In this study, we investigated whether combining both physical activities and gestures could improve learning even more in a 4-week intervention program on foreign language vocabulary learning in preschool children. The main hypothesis that learning by embodying words through task-relevant enactment gestures and physical activities would be perceived as the preferred teaching method and lead to higher learning outcomes than learning by embodying words through task-relevant enactment gestures only, and learning without physical activities or gestures was confirmed by the results. The results of this study hold great promise for instructional methods combining physical activities and gestures as enhancers of children’s learning.
    Educational Psychology Review 07/2015; · 2.40 Impact Factor
    • "The interest in quality physical education (PE) programs has increased in the recent years due to global concerns regarding inadequate levels of physical activity (PA) among youth (Wiersma & Sherman, 2008). The promotion of PA during childhood is central to public health initiatives targeting childhood obesity (Strong et al., 2005), and schools have great potential to mediate such initiatives. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to create a physical education (PE) attitude scale and examine how it is associated with aerobic capacity (AC). Participants (n = 961, aged 15-20 years) were randomly selected from 26 Hungarian high schools. AC was estimated from performance on the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular and Endurance Run test, and the attitude scale had 31 items measured on a Likert scale that ranged from 1 to 5. Principal component analysis was used to examine the structure of the questionnaire while several 2-way analyses of variance and multiple linear regression (MLR) were computed to examine trends in AC and test the association between component scores obtained from the attitude scale and AC, respectively. Five components were identified: health orientation in PE (C1), avoid failure in PE (C2), success orientation in PE (C3), attitude toward physical activity (C4), and cooperation and social experience in PE (C5). There was a statistically significant main effect for sex on C3 (p < .05), C4 (p < .001), and C5 (p < .05) indicating that boys' scores were higher than girls. The Sex × Age interaction was also statistically significant (p < .05) and follow-up comparisons revealed sex differences in C5 for 15-year-old participants. Girls showed statistically significant higher values than boys in C5 at the age of 16 years. MLR results revealed that component scores were significantly associated with AC (p < .05). Statistically significant predictors included C1, C2, C3, and C4 for boys and C2 and C4 for girls. The 5-component scale seems to be suitable for measuring students' attitudes toward PE. The design of the study does not allow for direct associations between attitudes and AC but suggests that these 2 might be related.
    Research quarterly for exercise and sport 06/2015; 86(sup1-sup1):S74-S81. DOI:10.1080/02701367.2015.1043229 · 1.26 Impact Factor
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