Evidence Based Physical Activity for School-age Youth

Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia, USA.
Journal of Pediatrics (Impact Factor: 3.79). 07/2005; 146(6):732-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2005.01.055
Source: PubMed


To review the effects of physical activity on health and behavior outcomes and develop evidence-based recommendations for physical activity in youth.
A systematic literature review identified 850 articles; additional papers were identified by the expert panelists. Articles in the identified outcome areas were reviewed, evaluated and summarized by an expert panelist. The strength of the evidence, conclusions, key issues, and gaps in the evidence were abstracted in a standardized format and presented and discussed by panelists and organizational representatives.
Most intervention studies used supervised programs of moderate to vigorous physical activity of 30 to 45 minutes duration 3 to 5 days per week. The panel believed that a greater amount of physical activity would be necessary to achieve similar beneficial effects on health and behavioral outcomes in ordinary daily circumstances (typically intermittent and unsupervised activity).
School-age youth should participate daily in 60 minutes or more of moderate to vigorous physical activity that is developmentally appropriate, enjoyable, and involves a variety of activities.

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    • "Andersen et al. (2006) have described how moderate to vigorous physical activity is supposed to be effective on children's health and metabolic syndromes. Based on an extensive review of scientific articles, Strong et al. (2005) recommended a minimum of 60 min moderate to vigorous physical activity every day for school-aged youth. This is consistent with the Global Strategy for diet, physical activity and health approved by WHO (2004) and also the Norwegian White Paper on physical activity and health (Action plan for physical activity, 2004). "

    • "Moreover, recent data suggest developmental continuity in behavioral dispositions, such that inclinations toward physical activity and sports participation tend to be carried on through adulthood (Gordon-Larsen, Nelson, & Popkin, 2004; Malina, 2001). In this context, the identification of early predictors of BMI and sports participation during childhood represents an important step in both the prevention of later health problems and the promotion of general well-being (Dietz & Robinson, 2005; Strong et al., 2005). Previously identified correlates of physical activity and BMI in children include sociodemographic factors, child sex, parental physical activity and support, time spent outdoors, and mother's education level (Biddle, Atkin, Cavill, & Foster, 2011; Ferreira et al., 2007; Nilsson et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose . Health promotion in youth is likely to benefit from enhancing academic achievement and physical activity. The present study examines how kindergarten childhood self-regulation skills and behaviors predict involvement in both structured and unstructured physical and nonphysical extracurricular activities in the fourth grade. As a second objective this study also investigated how kindergarten childhood participation in extracurricular activities predicts classroom engagement, reflective of self-regulation, by the fourth grade. Design . Secondary analyses were conducted using prospective-longitudinal data. Setting . The Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, Quebec, Canada. Subjects . Participants were randomly selected at birth from a stratified sample of 2694 born in Québec, Canada, between 1997 and 1998. Participants were included if they had complete data on teacher ratings of child self-regulation as measured by classroom engagement and parent ratings of sports participation (n = 935). Measures . Teachers reported self-regulation skills in children through a measure of classroom engagement. Parents provided reports of child participation extracurricular activities. Analysis . Ordinary least-squares regressions were conducted. Results . A higher-frequency kindergarten involvement with structured physical activities was associated with fourth-grade classroom engagement (β = .061, 95% confidence interval [CI]: .017, .104). Better kindergarten classroom engagement predicted more frequent participation in fourth-grade structured physical activities (β = .799, 95% CI: .405, 1.192) and team sports (β = .408, 95% CI: .207, .608). Conclusion . Results suggest mutual relations between physical activity and self-regulation from kindergarten to grade four. This suggests strong learning skills indicative of self-regulation and opportunities to participate in supervised physical activities or sports teams may help children develop healthy dispositions and behaviors in emerging adolescence.
    American journal of health promotion: AJHP 09/2015; 30(1):e32-e40. DOI:10.4278/ajhp.131021-QUAN-537 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    • "The benefits of children's physical activity (PA) participation are indisputable (Strong et al., 2005) and the importance of an effective PA-promotion intervention among youth for long-term health effects has been recognized (Van Beurden et al., 2003). Increased PA is associated with a reduction of the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (Vuori, 2010) and obesity (Hills & Byrne, 2006) and improves mental health of adolescents (Kantomaa et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Pre-school age is important for developing healthy attitudes towards physical activity (PA). However, research on pre-schoolers’ pedometer-determined PA is limited. Aim: To describe pre-schoolers’ ambulatory activity; investigate step count differences in respect to Body Mass Index (BMI) categories and examine the prevalence of obesity. Subjects and methods: Pre-school aged children (n = 250; 5.5 ± 0.4 years) from Komotini (Greece) wore Omron HJ-720IT-E2 pedometers for 10 consecutive days. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Results: Three-way repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that children performed more steps on weekdays than during weekends (p < 0.001) and during leisure time than school (p < 0.001). Significant differences appeared between normal and obese children’s counts on weekdays (p < 0.001), weekend days (p < 0.05), during school (p < 0.001), after school (p < 0.005) and in weekly steps (p < 0.005). No gender differences were detected. Moreover, according to a sample t-test analysis, children’s daily steps were significantly different from the 10 000 steps/day guideline, while obesity prevalence was 15.6%. Conclusion: School-based ambulatory activity is lower than after school ambulatory activity, independent of BMI-category and gender, although obese children demonstrated fewer steps. Taking into account the high rate of both the obesity prevalence and children not meeting the 10 000 steps/day guideline, the need for preventive policies becomes obvious.
    Annals of Human Biology 08/2015; 42(3):231-236. DOI:10.3109/03014460.2014.943286 · 1.27 Impact Factor
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