A role for glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in the mammalian circadian clock.
ABSTRACT The Drosophila shaggy gene product is a mammalian glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) homologue that contributes to the circadian clock of the Drosophila through TIMELESS phosphorylation, and it regulates nuclear translocation of the PERIOD/TIMELESS heterodimer. We found that mammalian GSK-3beta is expressed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and liver of mice and that GSK-3beta phosphorylation exhibits robust circadian oscillation. Rhythmic GSK-3beta phosphorylation is also observed in serum-shocked NIH3T3 cells. Exposing serum-shocked NIH3T3 cells to lithium chloride, a specific inhibitor of GSK-3beta, increases GSK-3beta phosphorylation and delays the phase of rhythmic clock gene expression. On the other hand, GSK-3beta overexpression advances the phase of clock gene expression. We also found that GSK-3beta interacts with PERIOD2 (PER2) in vitro and in vivo. Recombinant GSK-3beta can phosphorylate PER2 in vitro. GSK-3beta promotes the nuclear translocation of PER2 in COS1 cells. The present data suggest that GSK-3beta plays important roles in mammalian circadian clock.
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ABSTRACT: Objectives The therapeutic action of lithium in bipolar mood disorder may be connected with its effect on biological rhythms. In the present study, an attempt was made to investigate an association between multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their haplotypes pertaining to four genes involved in regulation of biological rhythms [circadian locomotor output cycle kaput (CLOCK), aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like (ARNTL), timeless circadian clock (TIMELESS), period circadian clock 3 (PER 3)], and the efficacy of lithium prophylaxis. Methods The study was performed on 115 patients with bipolar mood disorder (45 males, 70 females) with a mean age of 52 ± 12 years, with lithium prophylaxis for 22 ± 8 years, recruited from the outpatients in the Department of Psychiatry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences. The assessment of the lithium prophylactic response was made retrospectively using the Alda scale. Genotyping was done for nine SNPs of the CLOCK gene, 18 SNPs of the ARNTL gene, six SNPs of the timeless circadian clock (TIM) gene, and nine SNPs of the PER3 gene. ResultsAn association with the degree of lithium prophylaxis was found for six SNPs and three haplotype blocks of the ARNTL gene, and two SNPs and one haplotype block of the TIM gene. No association with SNPs or haplotypes of the CLOCK and PER3 genes was observed. Conclusions The results suggest that the ARNTL and TIM genes may be associated with the lithium prophylactic response in bipolar illness. This association may be related to the role of these genes in the predisposition to bipolar mood disorder. Of special interest may be polymorphisms of these genes involved both in the predisposition to bipolar mood disorder and the lithium response.Bipolar Disorders 03/2014; 16(2). · 4.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We showed previously that release of the cerebral neurohormones, bombyxin (an insulin-like peptide, ILP) and prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) from the brain have strong circadian rhythms, driven by master clock cells in the brain. These neurohormone rhythms synchronize the photosensitive brain clock with the photosensitive peripheral clock in the cells of the prothoracic glands (PGs), in which both regulate steroidogenesis. Here, using immunohistochemistry and confocal laser scanning microscopy, we show these neurohormones likely act on clock cells in the brain and PGs by regulating expression of PERIOD (PER) protein. PER is severely reduced in the nuclei of all clock cells in continuous light, but on transfer of tissues to darkness in vitro, it is rapidly induced. A 4h pulse of either PTTH or ILPs to brain and PGs in vitro both rapidly and highly significantly induce PER in the nuclei of clock cells. Administration of both neurohormones together induces more PER than does either alone and even more than does transfer to darkness, at least in PG cells. These are clearly non-steroidogenic actions of these peptides. In the peripheral oscillators salivary gland (SG) and fat body cells, neither bombyxin nor PTTH nor darkness induced PER, but a combination of both bombyxin and PTTH induced PER. Thus, PTTH and ILPs exert synergistic actions on induction of PER in both clock cells and peripheral oscillators, implying their signaling pathways converge, but in different ways in different cell types. We infer clock cells are able to integrate light cycle information with internal signals from hormones.Frontiers in Physiology 01/2014; 5:41.
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ABSTRACT: Determining the cause of psychiatric disorders is a goal of modern neuroscience, and will hopefully lead to the discovery of treatments to either prevent or alleviate the suffering caused by these diseases. One roadblock to attaining this goal is the realization that neuropsychiatric diseases are rarely due to a single gene polymorphism, environmental exposure, or developmental insult. Rather, it is a complex interaction between these various influences that likely leads to the development of clinically relevant syndromes. Our lab is exploring the links between environmental exposures and neurobehavioral function by investigating how disruption of the circadian (daily) clock alters the structure and function of neural circuits, with the hypothesis that disrupting this crucial homeostatic system can directly contribute to altered vulnerability of the organism to other factors that interact to produce psychiatric illness. This review explores some historical and more recent findings that link disrupted circadian clocks to neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly depression, mania, and schizophrenia. We take a comparative approach by exploring the effects observed in human populations, as well as some experimental models used in the laboratory to unravel mechanistic and causal relationships between disruption of the circadian clock and behavioral abnormalities. This is a rich area of research that we predict will contribute greatly to our understanding of how genes, environment, and development interact to modulate an individual's vulnerability to psychiatric disorders.Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 01/2014; 8:162. · 4.76 Impact Factor