A role for glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta in the mammalian circadian clock

Institute of Applied Biochemistry, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.6). 09/2005; 280(33):29397-402. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M503526200
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The Drosophila shaggy gene product is a mammalian glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) homologue that contributes to the circadian clock of the Drosophila through TIMELESS phosphorylation, and it regulates nuclear translocation of the PERIOD/TIMELESS heterodimer. We found that mammalian GSK-3beta is expressed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and liver of mice and that GSK-3beta phosphorylation exhibits robust circadian oscillation. Rhythmic GSK-3beta phosphorylation is also observed in serum-shocked NIH3T3 cells. Exposing serum-shocked NIH3T3 cells to lithium chloride, a specific inhibitor of GSK-3beta, increases GSK-3beta phosphorylation and delays the phase of rhythmic clock gene expression. On the other hand, GSK-3beta overexpression advances the phase of clock gene expression. We also found that GSK-3beta interacts with PERIOD2 (PER2) in vitro and in vivo. Recombinant GSK-3beta can phosphorylate PER2 in vitro. GSK-3beta promotes the nuclear translocation of PER2 in COS1 cells. The present data suggest that GSK-3beta plays important roles in mammalian circadian clock.

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