A role for glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta in the mammalian circadian clock
ABSTRACT The Drosophila shaggy gene product is a mammalian glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) homologue that contributes to the circadian clock of the Drosophila through TIMELESS phosphorylation, and it regulates nuclear translocation of the PERIOD/TIMELESS heterodimer. We found that mammalian GSK-3beta is expressed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and liver of mice and that GSK-3beta phosphorylation exhibits robust circadian oscillation. Rhythmic GSK-3beta phosphorylation is also observed in serum-shocked NIH3T3 cells. Exposing serum-shocked NIH3T3 cells to lithium chloride, a specific inhibitor of GSK-3beta, increases GSK-3beta phosphorylation and delays the phase of rhythmic clock gene expression. On the other hand, GSK-3beta overexpression advances the phase of clock gene expression. We also found that GSK-3beta interacts with PERIOD2 (PER2) in vitro and in vivo. Recombinant GSK-3beta can phosphorylate PER2 in vitro. GSK-3beta promotes the nuclear translocation of PER2 in COS1 cells. The present data suggest that GSK-3beta plays important roles in mammalian circadian clock.
SourceAvailable from: Robert H Belmaker
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ABSTRACT: The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the mammalian hypothalamus functions as an endogenous pacemaker that generates and maintains circadian rhythms throughout the body. Next to this central clock, peripheral oscillators exist in almost all mammalian tissues. Whereas the SCN is mainly entrained to the environment by light, peripheral clocks are entrained by various factors, of which feeding/fasting is the most important. Desynchronization between the central and peripheral clocks by, for instance, altered timing of food intake, can lead to uncoupling of peripheral clocks from the central pacemaker and is, in humans, related to the development of metabolic disorders, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Diets high in fat or sugar have been shown to alter circadian clock function. This review discusses the recent findings concerning the influence of nutrients, in particular fatty acids and glucose, on behavioral and molecular circadian rhythms and will summarize critical studies describing putative mechanisms by which these nutrients are able to alter normal circadian rhythmicity, in the SCN, in non-SCN brain areas, as well as in peripheral organs. As the effects of fat and sugar on the clock could be through alterations in energy status, the role of specific nutrient sensors will be outlined, as well as the molecular studies linking these components to metabolism. Understanding the impact of specific macronutrients on the circadian clock will allow for guidance towards the composition and timing of meals optimal for physiological health, as well as putative therapeutic targets to regulate the molecular clock. Copyright © 2014, American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 12/2014; DOI:10.1152/ajpregu.00322.2014 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Systems biology, which can be defined as integrative biology, comprises multistage processes that can be used to understand components of complex biological systems of living organisms and provides hierarchical information to decoding life. Using systems biology approaches such as genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics, it is now possible to delineate more complicated interactions between circadian control systems and diseases. The circadian rhythm is a multiscale phenomenon existing within the body that influences numerous physiological activities such as changes in gene expression, protein turnover, metabolism and human behavior. In this review, we describe the relationships between the circadian control system and its related genes or proteins, and circadian rhythm disorders in systems biology studies. To maintain and modulate circadian oscillation, cells possess elaborative feedback loops composed of circadian core proteins that regulate the expression of other genes through their transcriptional activities. The disruption of these rhythms has been reported to be associated with diseases such as arrhythmia, obesity, insulin resistance, carcinogenesis and disruptions in natural oscillations in the control of cell growth. This review demonstrates that lifestyle is considered as a fundamental factor that modifies circadian rhythm, and the development of dysfunctions and diseases could be regulated by an underlying expression network with multiple circadian-associated signals. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.Briefings in Bioinformatics 03/2015; DOI:10.1093/bib/bbv006 · 5.92 Impact Factor