Laboratory and pilot-scale phosphate and ammonium removal by controlled struvite precipitation following coagulation and flocculation of swine wastewater.
ABSTRACT To reduce the suspended solids load to a trickling filter installation, raw swine effluent was pre-treated with ferric chloride and a cationically charged polyacrylamide coagulant resulting in unexpected struvite accumulation downstream of this post-separation process. Using this pre-treated swine manure, struvite precipitation studies were carried out as a function of pH at laboratory and pilot batch and continuously operated scales. An optimal reaction time of 30 min was established for struvite precipitation in the pre-treated swine wastewater at pH 8.5, minimizing the co-precipitation of interfering minerals. Ferric chloride addition resulted in magnesium solubilization, such that no external additional source of magnesium was required for struvite formation. Aeration alone did not result in significant pH increases, so base addition was required for pH adjustment. X-ray diffraction revealed that the only crystalline phase produced was struvite. Removal of phosphate and ammonium attained 98% and 17% respectively in laboratory scale experiments. At the pilot-scale, removal attained 99% and 15% of phosphate and ammonium in both batch and continuously HRT = 1h) operated reactors.
- SourceAvailable from: Magali Christe Cammarota[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The goal of this work was to study the effective recovery of phosphorus from the supernatant of anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge by precipitation as struvite. The formation of struvite is envisioned as a promising process for nutrient removal and subsequent recovery, thus providing a strong incentive for its implementation, since the sewage is a renewable source of phosphorus. Struvite precipitation was obtained by controlled addition of Mg(OH)2 or MgCl2. We evaluated the removal of ammonia and phosphate under equimolar conditions of magnesium and magnesium stoichiometric excess of 100 to 200% relative to the limiting reagent, under a stirring speed of 300 rpm at pH 8, 9 and 10. The best condition was MgCl2 in 1:1 molar ratio to phosphate, considering the stoichiometric ratio [PO4(3-)]:[NH4(+)] of 0.13 (presented by raw sample). The results show the best cost-benefit ratio, removal of phosphate of 90.6% and ammonium removal of 29%, resulting in 23 mg l(-1) PO4(3-) and 265 mg l(-1) NH4(+) concentration in effluent.Water Science & Technology 01/2014; 69(7):1546-51. · 1.10 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Anaerobically digested swine wastewater contains high concentrations of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N). A pilot-scale experiment was carried out for nutrients removal and recovery from anaerobically digested swine wastewater by struvite crystallization. In the pilot plant, a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and a continuous-flow reactor with struvite accumulation devices were designed and employed. The wastewater pH value was increased by CO(2) stripping, and the struvite crystallization process was performed without alkali and Mg(2+) additions. Results of the long-term operation of the system showed that, both reactors provided up to 85% P removal and recovery over wide ranges of aeration times (1.0-4.0 h), hydraulic retention times (HRT) (6.0-15.0 h) and temperatures (0-29.5°C) for an extended period of 247 d, in which approximate 30% of P was recovered by the struvite accumulation devices. However, 40-90% of NH(4)(+)-N removed was through air stripping instead of being immobilized in the recovered solids. The recovered products were detected and analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and chemical methods, which were proved to be struvite with purity of more than 90%. This work demonstrated the feasibility and effects of nutrients removal and recovery from anaerobically digested swine wastewater by struvite crystallization without chemical additions.Journal of hazardous materials 03/2011; 190(1-3):140-9. · 4.14 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Urbanization and industrialization in China has resulted in a dramatic increase in the volume of wastewater and sewage sludge produced from wastewater treatment plants. Problems associated with sewage sludge have attracted increasing attention from the public and urban planners. How to manage sludge in an economically and environmentally acceptable manner is one of the critical issues that modern societies are facing. Sludge treatment systems consist of thickening, dewatering, and several different alternative main treatments (anaerobic digestion, aerobic digestion, drying, composting, and incineration). Agricultural application, landfill, and incineration are the principal disposal methods for sewage sludge in China. However, sewage sludge disposal in the future should focus on resource recovery, reducing environmental impacts and saving economic costs. The reuse of biosolids in all scenarios can be environmentally beneficial and cost-effective. Anaerobic digestion followed by land application is the preferable options due to low economic and energy costs and material reuse. It is necessary to formulate a standard suitable for the utilization of sewage sludge in China.Environmental Science and Pollution Research 06/2012; 19(5):1454-63. · 2.62 Impact Factor