Variation in enteral nutrition delivery in mechanically ventilated patients
ABSTRACT We determined the variability in enteral feeding practices in mechanically ventilated patients in four adult intensive care units of a tertiary-care, referral hospital.
Patients who had been mechanically ventilated for at least 48 h and received enteral nutrition were prospectively followed.
Fifty-five of 101 consecutive mechanically ventilated patients received enteral nutrition; in 93% of patients, feedings were infused into the stomach. Patients who were cared for in the medical intensive care unit, where a nutritional protocol was operational, received enteral nutrition earlier in their ventilatory course (P=0.004) and feedings were advanced to target rates faster (P=0.043) than those who received care in other units. The number (P=0.243) and duration (P=0.668) of interruptions in feeding did not differ by patient location. On average, patients received only 50% to 70% of their targeted caloric goals during the first 6 days of enteral nutrition. Most feeding discontinuations (41%) were secondary to procedures. Gastrointestinal intolerances, including vomiting, aspiration, abdominal distention, and increased gastric residuals, were uncommon despite allowing gastric residuals up to 300 mL.
The practice of providing enteral feeds to mechanically ventilated patients varies widely, even within one hospital. A protocol enhanced early initiation of enteral feeds and advancement to target feeding rates but did not alter the number or duration of interruptions in enteral feedings. Procedures represented the most common reason for stopping enteral feeds, and gastrointestinal intolerances (vomiting, aspiration, and increased gastric residuals) caused few feeding interruptions. The gastric route was safe and well tolerated for early enteral feeding in most mechanically ventilated patients.
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ABSTRACT: There are numerous challenges in providing nutrition to the mechanically ventilated critically ill ICU patient. Understanding the level of nutritional support and the barriers to enteral feeding interruption in mechanically ventilated patients are important to maximise the nutritional benefits to the critically ill patients. Thus, this study aims to evaluate enteral nutrition delivery and identify the reasons for interruptions in mechanically ventilated Malaysian patients receiving enteral feeding. A cross sectional prospective study of 77 consecutive patients who required mechanical ventilation and were receiving enteral nutrition was done in an open 14-bed intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital. Data were collected prospectively over a 3 month period. Descriptive statistical analysis were made with respect to demographical data, time taken to initiate feeds, type of feeds, quantification of feeds attainment, and reasons for feed interruptions. There are no set feeding protocols in the ICU. The usual initial rate of enteral nutrition observed in ICU was 20 ml/hour, assessed every 6 hours and the decision was made thereafter to increase feeds. The target calorie for each patient was determined by the clinician alongside the dietitian. The use of prokinetic agents was also prescribed at the discretion of the attending clinician and is commonly IV metoclopramide 10 mg three times a day. About 66% of patients achieved 80% of caloric requirements within 3 days of which 46.8% achieved full feeds in less than 12 hours. The time to initiate feeds for patients admitted into the ICU ranged from 0 - 110 hours with a median time to start feeds of 15 hours and the interquartile range (IQR) of 6-59 hours. The mean time to achieve at least 80% of nutritional target was 1.8 days ± 1.5 days. About 79% of patients experienced multiple feeding interruptions. The most prevalent reason for interruption was for procedures (45.1%) followed by high gastric residual volume (38.0%), diarrhoea (8.4%), difficulty in nasogastric tube placement (5.6%) and vomiting (2.9%). Nutritional inadequacy in mechanically ventilated Malaysian patients receiving enteral nutrition was not as common as expected. However, there is still room for improvement with regards to decreasing the number of patients who did not achieve their caloric requirement throughout their stay in the ICU.BMC Anesthesiology 12/2014; 14:127. DOI:10.1186/1471-2253-14-127 · 1.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: The objective of this study was to revise and improve a questionnaire to assess barriers to providing adequate enteral nutrition (EN) in critically ill adults. Methods: Changes were made to the questionnaire based on feedback from previous respondents. The revised questionnaire, including 20 potential barriers, was pilot tested in 3 hospitals in North America. Nurses were asked to rate each item based on the degree to which it hinders the provision of EN in their intensive care unit (ICU). The acceptability of the revised questionnaire was evaluated using 5 open-ended questions appended at the end of the questionnaire. Results: A total of 81 nurses completed the revised barriers questionnaire. A total of 72 of 73 (99%) respondents felt that the questionnaire was easy to understand, and 64 of 73 (88%) felt that the individual questions were clear. On average, respondents rated the degree to which potential barriers hindered the delivery of EN to the patient as "very little" or "a little." Statistically significantly differences in mean responses were observed across the 3 ICUs for 8 of the 20 items. The indices of internal reliability were assessed to be acceptable. Conclusions: The revised questionnaire to assess barriers to EN seems acceptable and clinically sensible and now appears to comprehensively list all possible modifiable barriers to delivering EN. This questionnaire needs further study to determine whether measuring barriers with this questionnaire can translate into improved EN delivery to critically ill patients. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 02/2015; DOI:10.1177/0148607115571015 · 3.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The routine aspiration of gastric residuals (GR) is considered standard care for critically ill infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Unfortunately, scant information exists regarding the risks and benefits associated with this common procedure. This article provides the state of the science regarding what is known about the routine aspiration and evaluation of GRs in the NICU focusing on the following issues: (1) the use of GRs for verification of feeding tube placement, (2) GRs as an indicator of gastric contents, (3) GRs as an indicator of feeding intolerance or necrotizing enterocolitis, (4) the association between GR volume and ventilator-associated pneumonia, (5) whether GRs should be discarded or refed, (6) the definition of an abnormal GR, and (7) the potential risks associated with aspiration and evaluation of GRs. Recommendations for further research and practice guidelines are also provided.The Journal of perinatal & neonatal nursing 01/2015; 29(1):51-9. DOI:10.1097/JPN.0000000000000080 · 1.01 Impact Factor