Intraoperative complications of phacoemulsification in eyes with and without pseudoexfoliation

Rambam Medical Center, H̱efa, Haifa, Israel
Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery (Impact Factor: 2.55). 06/2005; 31(5):1002-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcrs.2004.09.051
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To determine the intraoperative complications in a large series of phacoemulsification procedures, including patients with and without pseudoexfoliation, excluding those with marked phacodonesis or lens subluxation.
Department of Ophthalmology, Carmel Medical Centre, Haifa, Israel.
This institutional case-control study included 1501 consecutive phacoemulsification procedures: 137 eyes with pseudoexfoliation and 1364 eyes without this condition. Baseline demographics and clinical factors were collected from the medical files. A comparative analysis of the incidence of intraoperative complications in eyes with or without pseudoexfoliation was calculated. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression were used to identify ocular factors that predicted intraoperative complications.
There was no significant difference (P>.05) in the rate of intraoperative complications between the pseudoexfoliation (5.8%) and control (4.0%) groups. There were no significant differences in the incidence of capsular breaks, vitreous loss, and zonular ruptures without vitreous loss in the 2 groups. Pseudoexfoliation did not confer a statistically higher risk for intraoperative complications (odds ratio 1.62, 95% confidence interval 0.74-3.55).
Phacoemulsification by experienced surgeons is safe in eyes with pseudoexfoliation without marked phacodonesis or lens subluxation.

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    ABSTRACT: To compare the intraoperative and immediate postoperative behavior and complications in eyes with pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome with eyes having senile cataract without PEX during cataract surgery using phacoemulsification (PKE). In this prospective study, 68 eyes of 68 patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 (test) comprised 34 eyes with immature senile cataract with PEX and Group 2 (control) included 34 eyes with immature senile cataract without PEX and any coexisting ocular pathology. Phacoemulsification (modern cataract surgery) was performed on both groups through stop and chop technique and comparative analysis of the incidence of intraoperative and immediate postoperative complications was made. There was no significant difference in rates of intraoperative complications between PEX (2.9%) and Control (0%) group. The mean pupil diameter was significantly smaller in Group 1 (p<0.001). No eye in either group had phacodonesis. 58.8% of eyes in Group 1 and 29.4% in Group 2 had a harder cataract (nuclear sclerosis) ≥ grade 3 (p=0.017). PKE was performed in all eyes with cataract in both groups. Intraoperative complication (zonular dialysis (dehiscence) was encountered in only 2.9% (1 case) of eyes with PEX. PC (posterior capsule) tear (rent) with vitreous loss was seen in 2.9% eyes of Group 1 and none in Group 2. Postoperatively, IOP (intraocular pressure) and aqueous flare response were comparable between the groups. Significantly higher inflammatory cell response was observed in Group 1 (p=0.014). BCVA (best corrected visual acuity) using Snellen chart with pinhole on postoperative day1 was significantly better in the control group compared to the group with PEX (p=0.027). Phacoemulsification can be safely performed by experienced hands in cataractous eyes with PEX. The incidence of intraoperative and immediate post-operative complications in eyes with PEX was not significantly different compared to eyes without PEX in our study. Further studies among a larger population are required.
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    ABSTRACT: Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is a risk factor in cataract surgery because of the increased weakness of zonular apparatus and reduced pupillary dilatation. The surgical outcome of using phacoemulsification in the central zone, inducing minimal stress on the zonules, inserting a capsular tension ring in selected cases, and stretching the pupil mechanically in eyes with miotic pupils, may turn out to be uneventful in most cases. Postoperative fibrosis with subsequent shrinkage of the capsule is increased in these eyes, and these centripetal forces will further loosen the zonular fibres. Late in-the-bag intraocular lens dislocation is therefore anticipated to become a growing problem in the future. Despite the dysfunctioning of the blood-aqueous barrier in eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome, the frequency of postoperative inflammatory reaction is low due to the improvements made in surgical technique and equipment in recent years. Glaucoma frequently occurs in eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome. Compared with primary open-angle glaucoma, optic damage is more pronounced in these eyes at the time of diagnosis and response to medical therapy is poorer. Although responses to argon laser therapy and filtering surgery are roughly similar between the two types of glaucoma, there are indications that primary laser trabeculoplasty has a higher success rate in pseudoexfoliation glaucoma than in primary open-angle glaucoma.
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