Preemptive use of bivalirudin for urgent on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with potential heparin-induced thrombocytopenia
ABSTRACT The use of heparin in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) may result in severe complications or death. The diagnosis of HIT is frequently uncertain, however. Alternative anticoagulants in at-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass remain problematic. The novel short-acting, direct-thrombin inhibitor bivalirudin is the only alternative to heparin/protamine being used in elective non-HIT patients during CPB.
Four patients with severe thrombocytopenia after heparin exposure and suspected acute HIT underwent on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting surgery with preemptive use of bivalirudin. A continuous bivalirudin infusion was used during cardiopulmonary bypass, and activated clotting times were used to monitor anticoagulation.
Anticoagulation with bivalirudin during cardiopulmonary bypass was effective and uncomplicated. Duration of operation was not prolonged, and perioperative blood loss and transfusion rates were acceptable. Activated clotting times were helpful for monitoring anticoagulation in these patients.
These data provide further evidence of the feasibility of bivalirudin for anticoagulation during on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery in urgent clinical situations.
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Article: Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Summary Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), next to bleeding complications, is the most important side-effect of heparin therapy in cardiac patients and the most frequently found thrombocytopenia induced by medication. Two types of HIT are distinguished on the basis of both severity of disease, and pathophysiology: type I HIT is an early, transient, clinically harmless form of thrombocytopenia, due to direct heparin-induced platelet aggregation. Thromboembolic complications are usually not seen. No treatment is required. A normalization of platelet count even if heparin is continued is a usual observation. Type II HIT is more severe than type I HIT and is frequently complicated by extension of preexisting venous thromboembolism or new arterial thrombosis. The thrombocytopenia is caused by a pathogenic heparin-dependent IgG antibody (HIT-IgG) that recognizes as its target antigen a complex consisting of heparin and platelet factor IV. Type II HIT should be suspected when the platelet count falls to less than 100,000 per cubic millimeter or less than 50% of the base line value 5 to 15 days after heparin therapy is begun, or sooner in a patient who received heparin in the recent past. The clinical diagnosis of type II HIT can be confirmed by several sensitive assays. In cases of type II HIT, heparin must be stopped immediately. However, if the patient requires continued anticoagulant therapy for an acute event such as deep venous thrombosis, substitution of an alternative rapid-acting anticoagulant drug is often needed. In the authors experience Danaparoid sodium, a low-sulfated heparinoid with a low cross-reactivity (10%) to heparin, can be regarded as an effective anticoagulant in patients with type II HIT. Preliminary experiences with intravenous recombinant hirudin are also encouraging and suggest that this direct thrombin inhibitor will emerge as a valuable alternative treatment for patients who suffer from HIT.Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis 02/1986; 12(1):59-62. DOI:10.1055/s-2007-1003534 · 3.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bivalirudin (Hirulog, Angiomax) is a specific, reversible and direct thrombin inhibitor with a predictable anticoagulant effect. It is cleared by both proteolytic cleavage and renal mechanisms, predominantly glomerular filtration. Bivalirudin inhibits both circulating thrombin and fibrin bound thrombin directly by binding to thrombin catalytic site and anion-binding exosite I in a concentration-dependent manner. Bivalirudin prolongs activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, thrombin time and activated clotting time (ACT). ACT levels with bivalirudin do not correlate with its clinical efficacy. Bivalirudin with a provisional GpIIb/IIIa inhibitor is indicated in elective contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In respect to combined ischemic and hemorrhagic endpoints of death, myocardial infarction, unplanned urgent revascularization and major bleeding during PCI (including subgroups of patients with renal impairment and diabetes) bivalirudin is not inferior to unfractioned heparin and planned GpIIb/IIIa inhibitors. In addition, bivalirudin has been consistently shown to have significantly less in-hospital major bleeding than heparin alone or heparin in combination with a GpIIb/IIIa inhibitor. Bivalirudin appears to be also safe and effective during PCI in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Finally, data from PCI studies support the safety and efficacy of bivalirudin, although its direct randomized comparison with unfractionated heparin is lacking.Cardiovascular Drug Reviews 02/2005; 23(4):345-60. DOI:10.1111/j.1527-3466.2005.tb00177.x · 5.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A 56-year-old man with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with thrombosis syndrome (HITTS) received anticoagulation with recombinant hirudin (lepirudin) for emergency coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and aortic valve replacement. The patient experienced life-threatening refractory bleeding that was successfully treated with recombinant factor VIIa. He had a history of infective endocarditis that resulted in severe aortic insufficiency, three-vessel coronary artery disease, and acute renal failure requiring hemodialysis. The patient was transferred from another hospital for the emergency surgery, but before his transfer, he developed HITTS secondary to therapeutic heparin for a deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremity. The presence of HITTS, the urgent nature of the case, and the availability of the direct thrombin inhibitor led the surgical team to select lepirudin for anticoagulation to facilitate cardiopulmonary bypass. After separation from cardiopulmonary bypass, the patient was in a coagulopathic state due to the inability to reverse the lepirudin and the slowed elimination of the drug secondary to inadequate renal function. As a result, the patient experienced excessive generalized oozing that was unresponsive to traditional therapies and blood product transfusions. Recombinant factor VIIa 35 microg/kg was given as rescue therapy. The bleeding slowed, which allowed placement of chest tubes and closing of the sternum. The patient was transferred to the intensive care unit in stable condition with no evidence of thrombosis in the freshly placed bypass grafts or on the bioprosthetic valve. Recombinant factor VIIa appears to be a suitable option as salvage therapy in patients with refractory bleeding secondary to anticoagulation with a direct thrombin inhibitor during cardiac surgery.Pharmacotherapy 05/2006; 26(4):569-577. DOI:10.1592/phco.26.4.576 · 2.20 Impact Factor