Preemptive use of bivalirudin for urgent on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with potential heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.
ABSTRACT The use of heparin in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) may result in severe complications or death. The diagnosis of HIT is frequently uncertain, however. Alternative anticoagulants in at-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass remain problematic. The novel short-acting, direct-thrombin inhibitor bivalirudin is the only alternative to heparin/protamine being used in elective non-HIT patients during CPB.
Four patients with severe thrombocytopenia after heparin exposure and suspected acute HIT underwent on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting surgery with preemptive use of bivalirudin. A continuous bivalirudin infusion was used during cardiopulmonary bypass, and activated clotting times were used to monitor anticoagulation.
Anticoagulation with bivalirudin during cardiopulmonary bypass was effective and uncomplicated. Duration of operation was not prolonged, and perioperative blood loss and transfusion rates were acceptable. Activated clotting times were helpful for monitoring anticoagulation in these patients.
These data provide further evidence of the feasibility of bivalirudin for anticoagulation during on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery in urgent clinical situations.
- SourceAvailable from: liverpoolctanaesthesia.comAnesthesia & Analgesia 03/2003; 96(2):383-6, table of contents. · 3.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bivalirudin is a short-acting direct thrombin inhibitor, with advantages over unfractionated heparin for anticoagulation in cardiac surgery. We hypothesized that bivalirudin is not associated with a clinically important increase in blood loss compared with heparin with protamine reversal in patients undergoing off pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery. We also assessed flow with angiography at 3 months using a modified Thombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) grade in the grafted coronary arteries. One hundred patients were randomly assigned to receive bivalirudin (0.75 mg/kg bolus, 1.75 mg/kg/h infusion) or heparin (150 to 300 U/kg bolus) with protamine reversal. A median of 3 (range, 1 to 5) grafts were inserted per patient. Blood loss for the 12 hours after study drug initiation in the bivalirudin group (median, 793 mL; interquartile range, 532 to 1,214 mL; range, 320 to 4,909 mL; n = 50) was not significantly greater than in the heparin group (median, 805 mL; interquartile range, 517 to 1,117 mL; range, 201 to 2,567 mL; n = 50; p = 0.165). Median graft flow was 3.0 in the bivalirudin group (n = 40) and 2.67 in the heparin group (n = 39; p = 0.047). The bivalirudin group had more patients with grade 3 (ie, full) flow in at least 1 graft (100% versus 90%; p = 0.04), a trend toward more patients with grade 3 flow in all grafts (60% versus 38%; p = 0.06), and more grafts with grade 3 flow (82% versus 67%; p = 0.03). Anticoagulation for OPCAB surgery with bivalirudin was feasible without a clinically important increase in perioperative blood loss. Graft flow was better in the bivalirudin patients; the impact of this on clinical outcomes requires a larger study.The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 04/2004; 77(3):925-31; discussion 931. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the use of bivalirudin as an anticoagulant therapy during cardiopulmonary bypass in 20 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. Primary end points consisted of clinical outcome data, whereas secondary end points focused on blood loss, transfusions, pharmacokinetics, and monitoring. Our data provide the first evidence of clinical feasibility of anticoagulation with bivalirudin during cardiopulmonary bypass.The American Journal of Cardiology 03/2004; 93(3):356-9. · 3.21 Impact Factor