Distinguishing fibrovascular septa from vasculogenic mimicry patterns.
ABSTRACT Molecular analyses indicate that periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive (laminin-rich) patterns in melanomas are generated by invasive tumor cells by vasculogenic mimicry. Some observers, however, consider these patterns to be fibrovascular septa, generated by a stromal host response.
To delineate differences between vasculogenic mimicry patterns and fibrovascular septa in primary uveal melanomas.
Frequency distributions, associations with outcome, and thicknesses of trichrome-positive and PAS-positive looping patterns were determined in 234 primary uveal melanomas. Sequential sections of 13 additional primary uveal melanomas that contained PAS-positive/trichrome-negative looping patterns were stained for type I and type IV collagens, laminin, and fibronectin. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed on RNA from cultured uveal melanoma cells for the expression of COL1A1, COL4A2, and fibronectin.
Trichrome-positive loops were encountered less frequently than PAS-positive loops (10% vs 56%, respectively). Death from metastatic melanoma was strongly associated with PAS-positive (P < .001) but not with trichrome-positive (P = .57) loops. Trichrome-positive loops were significantly thicker than PAS-positive loops (P < .001). The PAS-positive patterns stained positive for laminin, type I and type IV collagens, and fibronectin. Type I collagen was detected within melanoma cells and focally within some PAS-positive patterns. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed 3-fold, 25-fold, and 97-fold increases, respectively, in expression of COL4A2, fibronectin, and COL1A1 by invasive pattern-forming primary melanoma cells compared with poorly invasive non-pattern-forming cells.
Fibrovascular septa are rare and prognostically insignificant in uveal melanomas, whereas vasculogenic mimicry patterns are associated with increased mortality. Type I collagen, seen focally in some vasculogenic mimicry patterns, may be synthesized by tumor cells, independent of a host stromal response.
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ABSTRACT: Cancer treatment continues to be challenged by the development of therapeutic resistances and relapses in the clinical setting, which are largely attributed to tumor heterogeneity, particularly the existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Thus, targeting the CSC subpopulation may represent an effective therapeutic strategy. However, despite advances in identifying and characterizing CD133(+) CSCs in various human cancers, efforts to translate these experimental findings to clinical modalities have been slow in the making, especially in light of the growing awareness of CSC plasticity and the foreseeable pitfall of therapeutically targeting CSC base sorely on a surface marker. We, and others, have demonstrated that the CD133(+) CSCs reside in complex vascular niches, where reciprocal signaling between the CD133(+) CSCs and their microenvironment may govern niche morphogenesis and homeostasis. Herein, we discuss the multifaceted functional role of the CD133(+) cells in the context of their niche, and the potential of targeting CD133 as a niche-dependent approach in effective therapy.American Journal Of Pathology 02/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ajpath.2014.01.008 · 4.60 Impact Factor
- Research on Melanoma - A Glimpse into Current Directions and Future Trends, 09/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-293-7
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ABSTRACT: Choroidal melanoma is fatal in about 50% of patients. This is because of metastatic disease, which usually involves the liver. Kaplan-Meier survival curves based only on tumor size and extent do not give a true indication of prognosis. This is because the survival prognosis of choroidal melanoma correlates not only with clinical stage but also with histologic grade, genetic type, and competing causes of death. We have developed an online tool that predicts survival using all these data also taking normal life-expectancy into account. The estimated prognosis is accurate enough to be relevant to individual patients. Such personalized prognostication improves the well-being of patients having an excellent survival probability, not least because it spares them from unnecessary screening tests. Such screening can be targeted at high-risk patients, so that metastases are detected sooner, thereby enhancing any opportunities for treatment. Concerns about psychological harm have proved exaggerated. At least in Britain, patients want to know their prognosis, even if this is poor. The ability to select patients with a high risk of metastasis improves prospects for randomised studies evaluating systemic adjuvant therapy aimed at preventing or delaying metastatic disease. Furthermore, categorization of tissue samples according to survival prognosis enables laboratory studies to be undertaken without waiting many years for survival to be measured. As a result of advances in histologic and genetic studies, biopsy techniques and statistics, prognostication has become established as a routine procedure in our clinical practice, thereby enhancing the care of patients with uveal melanoma.Progress in Retinal and Eye Research 05/2011; 30(5):285-95. DOI:10.1016/j.preteyeres.2011.05.003 · 9.90 Impact Factor