Protocol for the examination of specimens from patients with neuroblastoma and related neuroblastic tumors

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, USA.
Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine (Impact Factor: 2.84). 08/2005; 129(7):874-83. DOI: 10.1043/1543-2165(2005)129[874:PFTEOS]2.0.CO;2
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Available from: Hiroyuki Shimada, Oct 04, 2015
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    • "Non-neoplastic reference cells from the same patient should be stored as well. The INRG Biology Subcommittee further emphasises the clear need for biobanking of high quality biological materials from neuroblastoma patients, and this must be central to the SOP of any cooperative group for the collection of diagnostic material (Qualman et al, 2005). For further details and recommendations, see Figure 2 and the guidelines indicated by Ambros and Ambros (2001). "
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroblastoma serves as a paradigm for utilising tumour genomic data for determining patient prognosis and treatment allocation. However, before the establishment of the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) Task Force in 2004, international consensus on markers, methodology, and data interpretation did not exist, compromising the reliability of decisive genetic markers and inhibiting translational research efforts. The objectives of the INRG Biology Committee were to identify highly prognostic genetic aberrations to be included in the new INRG risk classification schema and to develop precise definitions, decisive biomarkers, and technique standardisation. The review of the INRG database (n=8800 patients) by the INRG Task Force finally enabled the identification of the most significant neuroblastoma biomarkers. In addition, the Biology Committee compared the standard operating procedures of different cooperative groups to arrive at international consensus for methodology, nomenclature, and future directions. Consensus was reached to include MYCN status, 11q23 allelic status, and ploidy in the INRG classification system on the basis of an evidence-based review of the INRG database. Standardised operating procedures for analysing these genetic factors were adopted, and criteria for proper nomenclature were developed. Neuroblastoma treatment planning is highly dependant on tumour cell genomic features, and it is likely that a comprehensive panel of DNA-based biomarkers will be used in future risk assignment algorithms applying genome-wide techniques. Consensus on methodology and interpretation is essential for uniform INRG classification and will greatly facilitate international and cooperative clinical and translational research studies.
    British Journal of Cancer 06/2009; 100(9):1471-82. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6605014 · 4.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumors presenting in the newborn period are rare, although pathologists working at busy obstetric or neonatal units can expect to see occasional cases (Isaacs 1997, 2002b). The incidence is around 1 in 12,000 to 1 in 27,500 live births (Moore et al. 2003). Many of these tumors are specifi c to infants or behave differently from their counterparts in older children. Lack of familiarity with neonatal tumors may lead to unnecessarily aggressive therapy or well-intentioned neglect. Some neonatal tumors may appear to be aggressive lesions and yet be benign and, conversely, others look benign but may be fatal if incompletely excised. Most, but not all, childhood neoplasms have been described in the perinatal period. As in children generally, they are often mesenchymal rather than epithelial in his-togenesis, and knowledge of normal human development is often useful. Space limitations prevent this chapter from being comprehensive, so the focus is on the special characteristics of neonatal tumors that infl uence their diagnosis and management, and this chapter also discusses some areas where the study of neonatal tumors is of interest to our understanding of neoplasia in general. Some characteristic lesions not mentioned elsewhere in the text are listed in Table 15.1. Isaacs (1997, 2002; Las Heras and Isaacs 1987) in particular has presented extensive reviews of the subject. Neonatal tumors accounted for 2.6% of all children's tumors in his series, of which 40% were malignant. About 40% of malignant tumors in neonates are evident on the fi rst day of life, and 17% only discovered at autopsy (Campbell et al. 1987). Most malignant congenital tumors present in the fi rst week. A congenital tumor is one that is present at birth, but it is reasonable to suppose that any tumor presenting in the fi rst 3 months of life is congenital. It is now becoming clear that other childhood tumors, including many leukemias, Wilms' tumors, bronchopulmonary blastomas, and neuroblastomas, appear to arise from cells or lesions that are already abnormal at the time of birth. Children who present with acute leukemia can be found to have identical genetic changes in their leukemia and in the DNA from their Guthrie card or in the leukemia in their monozygotic twin (Greaves 2005). More neonates have these genetic changes than do children who develop leukemia. These studies show that many childhood leuke-mias have precursor cells that have undertaken the initial genetic steps of neoplastic progression at birth, although they do not necessarily progress to malignancy, a situation well described with nephrogenic rests and Wilms' tumors. This then raises the question of why tumors in infants are different from those in adults, which may be partly explained by the time needed for mutations to develop in epithelial tissues for adult tumors to occur and for exposure to mutagenic environmental agents. In other cases, such as Wilms' tumors, the cell of origin is probably the meta-nephric blastema that regresses during development. However, for acute leukemia, for example, the stem cells persist through life and the reasons are less clear but probably relate to the fetal environment and development.
    Pediatrics and Related Topics 02/1973; 12(6):377-96. DOI:10.1007/978-1-84628-743-5_15
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    ABSTRACT: Code partitioning is the problem of dividing sections of code among a set of processors for execution in parallel taking into account the communication overhead between the processors. Code partitioning of large amounts of code onto numerous processors requires variations to the classical partitioning algorithms, in part due to the memory and time requirements to partition a large set of data, but also due to the nature of the target machine and multiple constraints imposed by its architectural features. We present our experience in the design of enhancements to the classical multilevel k-way partitioning algorithm to deal with large graphs of over 1 million nodes, 5 constraints, and nodes of irregular size. Our algorithm was implemented to produce code for a massively parallel machine of up to 40,000 processors, and forms part of a hardware description language compiler. The algorithm and the compiler were tested on RTL designs for a next generation SPARC(R) processor. We present performance results and comparisons for partitioning multiprocessor hardware designs.
    Parallel Architecture and Compilation Techniques, 2004. PACT 2004. Proceedings. 13th International Conference on; 01/2004
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