Stereochemical heterogeneity in Verongid sponge metabolites. Absolute stereochemistry of (+)-fistularin-3 and (+)-11-epi-fistularin-3 by microscale LCMS-Marfey's analysis.
ABSTRACT The absolute configurations of fistularin-3, 11-epi-fistularin-3, and a related bis-oxazolidinone were determined by microscale hydrolysis followed by derivatization with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrophenyl-5-l-alaninamide. Samples of fistularin-3 from Verongid marine sponges collected in the Great Barrier Reef (Australia), Baía de Todos os Santos (Brazil), and the Key Largo, Florida (USA) varied in configuration at C11, a phenomenon that may be attributed to the involvement of stereochemically promiscuous hydroxylase enzymes. Variability in C11 configuration in fistularin-3 samples may have been overlooked in previously reported encounters due to the similarity of spectroscopic properties of fistularin-3 and 11-epi-fistularin-3 and their coelution under chromatographic conditions. Stereochemical heterogeneity at C11 in fistularin-3 samples suggests a possibility of a native biotransformation of suitable precursor in Verongid sponges by their associated microbial flora.
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ABSTRACT: Aplysina is the best representative genus of the family Aplysinidae. Halogenated substances are its main class of metabolites. These substances contribute greatly to the chemotaxonomy and characterization of the sponges belonging to this genus. Due to their pharmacological activities, these alkaloids are of special interest. The chemistry of halogenated substances and of the alkaloids has long been extensively studied in terrestrial organisms, while the number of marine organisms studied has just started to increase in the last decades. This review describes 101 halogenated substances from 14 species of Aplysina from different parts of the world. These substances can be divided into the following classes: bromotyramines (A), cavernicolins (B), hydroverongiaquinols (C), bromotyrosineketals (D), bromotyrosine lactone derivatives (E), oxazolidones (F), spiroisoxazolines (G), verongiabenzenoids (H), verongiaquinols (I), and dibromocyclohexadienes (J). A compilation of their (13)C NMR data is also part of the review. For this purpose 138 references were consulted.Marine Drugs 01/2011; 9(11):2316-68. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diseases of marine organisms, and sponges in particular, are increasingly reported worldwide. Prior research indicates that the survival of sponges on reefs is due largely to their production of biologically active secondary metabolites that provide protection from a diversity of stressors. Aplysina Red Band Syndrome (ARBS) is an emerging disease affecting Caribbean rope sponges (Aplysina spp.), but it is not known whether secondary metabolites play a role in disease susceptibility and resistance. To investigate whether differences in secondary metabolites may explain variability in susceptibility to ARBS in Aplysina cauliformis, we used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to generate chemical profiles from healthy tissue in both healthy and diseased sponges, and quantified peak areas for 15 metabolites. Analyses of healthy and diseased sponges revealed qualitative and quantitative differences in their chemical profiles. Aplysamine-1 and fistularin-3 were produced in significantly higher concentrations by healthy sponges, whereas aerothionin and 11-oxoaerothionin were found only in diseased sponges. At natural concentrations, extracts from both healthy and diseased sponges deterred feeding by an omnivorous reef fish. Fistularin-3 deterred feeding at concentrations found in healthy sponges, but not at concentrations found in diseased sponges. Aerothionin deterred feeding at concentrations found in diseased sponges, and may at least partially replace the loss of fistularin-3 as a feeding deterrent compound following pathogenesis, suggesting a trade-off in the production of feeding deterrent compounds. Extracts from healthy and diseased sponges inhibited bacterial growth, and both aplysamine-1 and fistularin-3 displayed selective antibacterial activity. Despite differences in secondary metabolite production between healthy and diseased sponges, the stress associated with ARBS does not appear to compromise the ability of A. cauliformis to maintain defenses against some of its natural enemies.Journal of Chemical Ecology 04/2012; 38(5):451-62. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Isoxazolines are an important class of nitrogen and oxygen containing heterocycles that belong to the azoles family which have gained much importance in the field of medicinal chemistry as the anticancer agents. Moreover, natural products are always expectedly regarded as an important hoard of a large number of potential chemotherapeutic candidates. Therefore, this review mainly focuses on the existence of isoxazoline derivatives in natural sources, their isolation and uses there of as anticancer agents besides highlighting the synthetic pathways to achieve these compounds. Structural-activity relationship and the influence of stereochemical aspects on anticancer activity of such compounds have also been discussed. It covers the literature upto 2014 and would certainly provide a great insight to scientific community to accelerate further research for the development of some novel anticancer drugs.European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 03/2014; · 3.50 Impact Factor