Occipital nerve electrical stimulation via the midline approach and subcutaneous surgical leads for treatment of severe occipital neuralgia: A pilot study
ABSTRACT Persistent occipital neuralgia can produce severe headaches that may not be controllable by conservative or surgical approaches. We describe a case series of 6 patients who had chronic headaches over an average of 4.9 yr who underwent occipital nerve electrical stimulation lead implantation using a modified midline approach. The patients had received conservative and surgical therapies in the past including oral antidepressants, membrane stabilizers, opioids, occipital nerve blocks, and radiofrequency ablations. Significant decreases in pain visual analog scale (VAS) scores and drastic improvement in functional capacity were observed during the occipital stimulation trial and during the 3-mo follow-up after implantation. The mean VAS score changed from 8.66 +/- 1.0 to 2.5 +/- 1.3 whereas pain disability index improved from 49.8 +/- 15.9 to 14.0 +/- 7.4. Our midline approach has several advantages compared with the submastoid approach used elsewhere. There is only one small midline incision over the upper neck and the strain on the lead extension occurs only with flexion and is minimal with lateral flexion and rotation, which contributes to overall stability of this system.
SourceAvailable from: Dajie Wang[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cervicogenic headache (CGH) is defined as referred pain from various cervical structures innervated by the upper three cervical spinal nerves. Such structures are potential pain generators, and include the atlanto-occipital joint, atlantoaxial joint, C2-3 zygapophysial joint, C2-3 intervertebral disc, cervical myofascial trigger points, as well as the cervical spinal nerves. Various interventional techniques, including cervical epidural steroid injection (CESI), have been proposed to treat this disorder. And while steroids administered by cervical epidural injection have been used in clinical practice to provide anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects that may alleviate pain in patients with CGH, the use of CESI in the diagnosis and treatment of CGH remains controversial. This article describes the neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and classification of CGH as well as a review of the available literature describing CESI as treatment for this debilitating condition.Current Pain and Headache Reports 09/2014; 18(9):442. DOI:10.1007/s11916-014-0442-3 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: IntroductionThe International Neuromodulation Society (INS) has identified a need for evaluation and analysis of the practice of neurostimulation of the brain and extracranial nerves of the head to treat chronic pain.Methods The INS board of directors chose an expert panel, the Neuromodulation Appropriateness Consensus Committee (NACC), to evaluate the peer-reviewed literature, current research, and clinical experience and to give guidance for the appropriate use of these methods. The literature searches involved key word searches in PubMed, EMBASE, and Google Scholar dated 1970–2013, which were graded and evaluated by the authors.ResultsThe NACC found that evidence supports extracranial stimulation for facial pain, migraine, and scalp pain but is limited for intracranial neuromodulation. High cervical spinal cord stimulation is an evolving option for facial pain. Intracranial neurostimulation may be an excellent option to treat diseases of the nervous system, such as tremor and Parkinson's disease, and in the future, potentially Alzheimer's disease and traumatic brain injury, but current use of intracranial stimulation for pain should be seen as investigational.Conclusions The NACC concludes that extracranial nerve stimulation should be considered in the algorithmic treatment of migraine and other disorders of the head. We should strive to perfect targets outside the cranium when treating pain, if at all possible.Neuromodulation 08/2014; 17(6). DOI:10.1111/ner.12215 · 1.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Trigeminal neuralgia is a type of orofacial pain that is diagnosed in 150,000 individuals each year, with an incidence of 12.6 per 100,000 person-years and a prevalence of 155 cases per 1,000,000 in the United States. Trigeminal neuralgia pain is characterized by sudden, severe, brief, stabbing or lancinating, recurrent episodes of pain in the distribution of one or more branches of the trigeminal nerve, which can cause significant suffering for the affected patient population. In many patients, a combination of medication and interventional treatments can be therapeutic, but is not always successful. Peripheral nerve stimulation has gained popularity as a simple and effective neuromodulation technique for the treatment of many pain conditions, including chronic headache disorders. Specifically in trigeminal neuralgia, neurostimulation of the supraorbital and infraorbital nerves may serve to provide relief of neuropathic pain by targeting the distal nerves that supply sensation to the areas of the face where the pain attacks occur, producing a field of paresthesia within the peripheral distribution of pain through the creation of an electric field in the vicinity of the leads. The purpose of the present case report is to introduce a new, less-invasive interventional technique, and to describe the authors' first experience with supraorbital and infraorbital neurostimulation therapy for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia in a patient who had failed previous conservative management.03/2015; 20(2):63-66.