Article

Provision of Foods Differing in Energy Density Affects Long-Term Weight Loss

The Pennsylvania State University, 226 Henderson Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA.
Obesity research (Impact Factor: 4.95). 07/2005; 13(6):1052-60. DOI: 10.1038/oby.2005.123
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The energy density (kilocalories per gram) of foods influences short-term energy intake. This 1-year clinical trial tested the effect on weight loss of a diet incorporating one or two servings per day of foods equal in energy but differing in energy density.
Dietitians instructed 200 overweight and obese women and men to follow an exchange-based energy-restricted diet. Additionally, subjects were randomized to consume daily either one or two servings of low energy-dense soup, two servings of high energy-dense snack foods, or no special food (comparison group).
All four groups showed significant weight loss at 6 months that was well maintained at 12 months. The magnitude of weight loss, however, differed by group (p=0.006). At 1 year, weight loss in the comparison (8.1+/-1.1 kg) and two-soup (7.2+/-0.9 kg) groups was significantly greater than that in the two-snack group (4.8+/-0.7 kg); weight loss in the one-soup group (6.1+/-1.1 kg) did not differ significantly from other groups. Weight loss was significantly correlated with the decrease in dietary energy density from baseline at 1 and 2 months (p=0.0001) but not at 6 and 12 months.
On an energy-restricted diet, consuming two servings of low energy-dense soup daily led to 50% greater weight loss than consuming the same amount of energy as high energy-dense snack food. Regularly consuming foods that are low in energy density can be an effective strategy for weight management.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Barbara Jean Rolls, Oct 02, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
93 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Women with exercise-associated menstrual cycle disturbances (EAMD) restrict energy intake. Reducing energy density (ED; kcals·g(-1) of food or beverage) may be a strategy employed by EAMD women to maintain lower energy intake. The purpose of this study was 3-fold: to determine whether EAMD women consume low ED diets; to identify food groups associated with low ED; and to determine concentrations of total peptide YY (PYY), a satiety factor. Twenty-five active females were divided into 2 groups, according to menstrual status: EAMD (n = 12) and ovulatory controls (OV) (n = 13). Two 3-day diet records were analyzed for ED and other parameters. Body composition, fitness, resting metabolic rate, and PYY were measured. Groups did not differ in age, age of menarche, body mass index, maximal aerobic capacity(), body fat (%), or amount of exercise per week. For fat mass (12.4 ± 1.7 vs. 14.9 ± 3.5 kg; p = 0.046), energy availability (28.8 ± 11.5 vs. 42.1 ± 9.2 kcal·kg(-1) FFM; p = 0.006), and energy intake (29.8 ± 9.2 vs. 36.3 ± 10.6 kcals·kg(-1) BW; p = 0.023), EAMD was lower than OV. ED was lower in EAMD than in OV (0.77 ± 0.06 vs. 1.06 ± 0.09 kcal·g(-1); p = 0.018) when all beverages were included, but not when noncaloric beverages were excluded. Vegetable (p = 0.047) and condiment (p = 0.014) consumption and fasting PYY (pg·mL(-1)) (p = 0.006) were higher in EAMD. EAMD ate a lower ED diet through increased vegetable, condiment, and noncaloric beverage consumption, and exhibited higher PYY concentrations. These behaviors may represent a successful strategy to restrict calories and maximize satiety.
    Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism 06/2011; 36(3):382-94. DOI:10.1139/h11-030 · 2.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Some have suggested that the US food stamp program (FSP) should be revised with a view to combating obesity among the poor. In this paper, we assess the likely impacts of allowing FSP participants to purchase only healthy foods when using food stamps. Our results indicate that FSP participants would probably increase their consumption of healthy food, but the implications for their purchases of unhealthy food are not clear. Market-wide consequences are even less clear, because changing what may be purchased using food stamps would lead to higher prices for healthy foods and lower prices for unhealthy foods and these price effects would feed back into consumer decisions, with adverse effects on consumption patterns of both participants and non-participants in the FSP. In addition, more restrictive rules on the use of food stamps would discourage participation in the FSP. We conclude that, while reforming the FSP may indeed to lead to better diets among participants, it is likely to be an ineffective and inefficient instrument for bringing about desired nutritional outcomes unless accompanied by additional policy instruments.
    Food Policy 04/2009; 34(2):176-184. DOI:10.1016/j.foodpol.2008.10.013 · 2.33 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of obesity has increased rapidly worldwide and the importance of considering the role of diet in the prevention and treatment of obesity is widely acknowledged. This paper reviews data on the effects of dietary carbohydrates on body fatness. Does the composition of the diet as related to carbohydrates affect the likelihood of passive over-consumption and long-term weight change? In addition, methodological limitations of both observational and experimental studies of dietary composition and body weight are discussed. Carbohydrates are among the macronutrients that provide energy and can thus contribute to excess energy intake and subsequent weight gain. There is no clear evidence that altering the proportion of total carbohydrate in the diet is an important determinant of energy intake. However, there is evidence that sugar-sweetened beverages do not induce satiety to the same extent as solid forms of carbohydrate, and that increases in sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption are associated with weight gain. Findings from studies on the effect of the dietary glycemic index on body weight have not been consistent. Dietary fiber is associated with a lesser degree of weight gain in observational studies. Although it is difficult to establish with certainty that fiber rather than other dietary attributes are responsible, whole-grain cereals, vegetables, legumes and fruits seem to be the most appropriate sources of dietary carbohydrate.
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 01/2008; 61 Suppl 1:S75-99. DOI:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602939 · 2.95 Impact Factor