Benign obstruction of the common hepatic duct (Mirizzi syndrome): diagnosis and operative management.
ABSTRACT Mirizzi syndrome is a rare complication of prolonged cholelithiasis, characterized by narrowing of the common hepatic duct due to mechanical compression and/or inflammation due to biliary calculus impacted in the infundibula of the gallbladder or in the cystic duct.
To describe a series of eight consecutive patients with Mirizzi syndrome, at a single institution, submitted to surgical treatment and to comment on their aspects with emphasis on the diagnosis and treatment.
Four women and four men, with a mean age of 61.6 years (42 to 82 years), presenting Mirizzi syndrome were operated between 1997 and 2003. The following items were evaluated: clinical presentation, laboratory results, preoperative evaluation, operative findings, presence of choledocholithiasis, type of Mirizzi syndrome according to the classification by Csendes, choice of operative procedures, and complications.
The most frequent symptoms were abdominal pain (87.5%) and jaundice (87.5%). All the patients presented altered hepatic function tests. The diagnosis of Mirizzi syndrome was intra-operative in seven (87.5%) patients, and preoperative in one (12.5%). Cholecystocholedochal fistula associated with choledocholithiasis was observed in three (37.5%) cases. Mirizzi syndrome was classified as Csendes type I in five (62.5%) patients, type II in one (12.5%), type III in one (12,5%) and type IV in another (12.5%). Cholecystectomy, as an isolated surgical procedure, was performed in four (50.0%) patients. One (12.5%) patient was submitted to partial cholecystectomy and closure of the fistulous orifice with the central part of the infundibula. Two (25.0%) patients were submitted to cholecystectomy and side-to-side choledochoduodenostomy and another (12.5%) to side-to-side choledochoduodenostomy remaining the gallbladder in situ. Seven (87.5%) patients had an uneventful recovery and were discharged in good conditions. One (12.5%) patient presented a postoperative sepsis due to a sub-hepatic abscess, and was reoperated. There was no operative mortality.
The preoperative diagnosis of Mirizzi syndrome is difficult and an awarded suspicion is necessary to avoid lesions of the biliary tree. The problem may only become evident during the operation due to firm adherences around Calot's triangle. The success of the treatment is related to a precocious recognition of the condition, even at the time of surgery, and adapting the management considering to the individual characteristics of each case.
- SourceAvailable from: sassit.co.za[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Gallstones cause various problems besides simple biliary colic and choplecystitis. With chronicity of inflammation caused by gallstone obstruction of the cystic duct, the gallbladder may fuse to the extrahepatic biliary tree, causing Mirizzi syndrome, or fistulize into the intestinal tract, causing so-called gallstone ileus. Stones may pass out of the gallbladder and travel downstream through the common bile duct to obstruct the ampulla of Vater resulting in gallstone pancreatitis, or pass out of the gallbladder inadvertently during surgery, resulting in the syndromes associated with lost gallstones. This article examines these varied and complex complications, with recommendations for management based on the literature, the data, and perhaps some common sense.Surgical Clinics of North America 01/2009; 88(6):1345-68, x. · 2.02 Impact Factor
- Southern medical journal 02/2009; 102(2):130. · 0.92 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of combined magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and computed tomography (CT) for preoperative diagnosis of Mirizzi syndrome. Fifty-two patients with surgically proven Mirizzi syndrome (n = 13) and cholecystitis without evidence for Mirizzi syndrome (n = 39) underwent both MRCP using single-shot turbo spin echo and 3-dimensional turbo spin echo sequences and CT. Two blinded observers independently and retrospectively reviewed the combination of MRCP and CT images and CT images alone. Diagnostic accuracy for a combined protocol and CT was evaluated. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of the combination of MRCP and CT were 96.0%, 93.5%, 83.5%, 98.5%, and 94.0%, respectively. Corresponding values of CT were 42.0%, 98.5%, 93.0%, 83.5%, and 85.0%, respectively. The sensitivity, negative predictive value, and accuracy of combined protocol were significantly higher than those of CT alone (P = 0.000, 0.001, and 0.042, respectively). Interobserver agreement was better for combined images (kappa = 0.906) than for CT images alone (kappa = 0.812). A combination of MRCP and CT is useful for preoperative diagnosis of Mirizzi syndrome.Journal of computer assisted tomography 06/2009; 33(4):636-40. · 1.38 Impact Factor