Human pharmaceuticals in US surface waters: A human health risk assessment
ABSTRACT The detection of low levels of pharmaceuticals in rivers and streams, drinking water, and groundwater has raised questions as to whether these levels may affect human health. This report presents human health risk assessments for 26 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and/or their metabolites, representing 14 different drug classes, for which environmental monitoring data are available for the United States. Acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) are derived using the considerable data that are available for APIs. The resulting ADIs are designed to protect potentially exposed populations, including sensitive sub-populations. The ADIs are then used to estimate predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) for two sources of potential human exposure: drinking water and fish ingestion. The PNECs are compared to measured environmental concentrations (MECs) from the published literature and to maximum predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) generated using the PhATE model. The PhATE model predictions are made under conservative assumptions of low river flow and no depletion (i.e., no metabolism, no removal during wastewater or drinking water treatment, and no instream depletion). Ratios of MECs to PNECs are typically very low and consistent with PEC to PNEC ratios. For all 26 compounds, these low ratios indicate that no appreciable human health risk exists from the presence of trace concentrations of these APIs in surface water and drinking water.
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ABSTRACT: This paper describes the characterization of gelatin–ceramic membranes grafted with laccase from Trametes versicolor for the degradation of pharmaceutical pollutants. Tetracycline was chosen as a model substrate to confirm the optimization of the grafting protocol using two kinds of microfiltration membranes with pore diameters equal to 0.2 and 1.4 µm. The preparation of the enzymatic membranes was optimized by varying the concentrations of the enzyme and gelatin solutions used as well as by measurement of active support permeability. An immunogold labeling method coupled with scanning electron microscopy was applied for a first time to determine the spatial distribution of enzymes on the membranes. The amount and distribution of the grafted enzymes were then correlated with the tetracycline depletion observed with the enzymatic membranes.Journal of Membrane Science 02/2015; 476. DOI:10.1016/j.memsci.2014.11.044 · 4.91 Impact Factor
Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination 03/2015; 5(1):2-7. · 0.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this review work is to give an overview of the research reported on bioprocesses for the treatment of domestic or industrial wastewaters (WW) containing pharmaceuticals. Conventional WW treatment technologies are not efficient enough to completely remove all pharmaceuticals from water. Indeed, these compounds are becoming an actual public health problem, because they are more and more present in underground and even in potable waters. Different types of bioprocesses are described in this work: from classical activated sludge systems, which allow the depletion of pharmaceuticals by bio-degradation and adsorption, to enzymatic reactions, which are more focused on the treatment of WW containing a relatively high content of pharmaceuticals and less organic carbon pollution than classical WW. Different aspects concerning the advantages of membrane bioreactors for pharmaceuticals removal are discussed, as well as the more recent studies on enzymatic membrane reactors to the depletion of these recalcitrant compounds.12/2014; 4(4):692-729. DOI:10.3390/membranes4040692