Splenic norepinephrine depletion following acute stress suppresses in vivo antibody response.
ABSTRACT Exposure to an intense acute stressor immediately following immunization leads to a reduction in anti-KLH IgM, IgG, and IgG2a, but not IgG1. Stress also depletes splenic norepinephrine (NE) content. Immunization during pharmacological (alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine) or stress-induced splenic NE depletion results in antibody suppression similar to that found in rats immunized prior to stressor exposure. Prevention of splenic NE depletion during stress by tyrosine, but not pharmacological elevation (mirtazapine) of NE, resulted in normal antibody responses. These data support the hypothesis that splenic NE depletion is necessary and sufficient for stress-induced suppression of antibody to a T-cell dependent antigen.
Article: Neurobiology of exercise.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Voluntary physical activity and exercise training can favorably influence brain plasticity by facilitating neurogenerative, neuroadaptive, and neuroprotective processes. At least some of the processes are mediated by neurotrophic factors. Motor skill training and regular exercise enhance executive functions of cognition and some types of learning, including motor learning in the spinal cord. These adaptations in the central nervous system have implications for the prevention and treatment of obesity, cancer, depression, the decline in cognition associated with aging, and neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's dementia, ischemic stroke, and head and spinal cord injury. Chronic voluntary physical activity also attenuates neural responses to stress in brain circuits responsible for regulating peripheral sympathetic activity, suggesting constraint on sympathetic responses to stress that could plausibly contribute to reductions in clinical disorders such as hypertension, heart failure, oxidative stress, and suppression of immunity. Mechanisms explaining these adaptations are not as yet known, but metabolic and neurochemical pathways among skeletal muscle, the spinal cord, and the brain offer plausible, testable mechanisms that might help explain effects of physical activity and exercise on the central nervous system.Obesity 04/2006; 14(3):345-56. · 4.28 Impact Factor