Training future pharmacists at a minority educational institution: evaluation of the Rx for change tobacco cessation training program.
ABSTRACT To estimate the impact of Rx for Change, an 8-h tobacco cessation training program on pharmacy students' perceived counseling skills, confidence for counseling, and future counseling of patients for tobacco cessation.
Unlinked, pre- and post-training surveys were administered to 142 pharmacy students enrolled at Texas Southern University, a primarily minority and historically black educational institution.
Post-training counseling abilities were significantly improved over pretraining values for each of the five key components of tobacco cessation counseling (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange), overall counseling abilities, and confidence for counseling (P < 0.001). Racial/ethnic differences in self-reported overall counseling was observed (P = 0.01). Ninety-one percent of participants believed that the training would increase the number of patients whom they counsel for cessation, and 95% believed that it would improve the quality of counseling that they provide. At least 95% of participants believed that the pharmacy profession should be more active in preventing patients from starting smoking and helping patients to stop smoking.
The Rx for Change program had a positive impact on perceived abilities and confidence for providing tobacco cessation counseling to patients. While it is important that all current and future health care providers receive specialized tobacco cessation training, it is particularly important for clinicians of racial/ethnic minority backgrounds, who are more likely to practice in geographic areas with a high density of population subgroups at an elevated risk for tobacco-related mortality. In particular, pharmacists, who are uniquely positioned within the community to provide care to all patients, including the medically underserved, must be equipped with the necessary skills to assist patients with quitting.
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ABSTRACT: This qualitative research paper describes a successful example of interprofessional education with family medicine residents (FMR) by a nurse practitioner (NP) colleague. The educational impact of the NP role in regard to smoking cessation counselling is revealed by the analysis of 16 semi-structured interviews using a phenomenological approach. The key themes depicted the NP as an educator and mentor, encourager and referral resource. Outcomes of improved knowledge, skills, and motivation towards providing smoking cessation counselling are described. This research provides some understanding of how professional students' learning and practice can be affected by a member of another profession through direct and indirect approaches. The experiences identified how interprofessional education and collaborative clinical practice can affect FMRs' attitudes, knowledge and behaviours. This learning can guide us in enhancing the quality of education provided to all health care professionals.Journal of Interprofessional Care 03/2009; 23(4):401-9. DOI:10.1080/13561820802490941 · 1.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: As one of the most accessible health care professionals, pharmacists are in an ideal position to provide tobacco-cessation and prevention services. Although there is growing interest in expanding the pharmacist's role in tobacco treatment, few published studies have assessed the efficacy or effectiveness of tobacco-cessation services delivered by pharmacists in the United States. To summarize and critique studies that examined pharmacist-delivered tobacco-cessation services. Articles written in English that appeared in peer-reviewed journals were identified from a systematic review of literature published from 1980-2006. Publications were selected for review if the interventions were delivered by pharmacists, if the intervention included United States Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs (if drug therapy was used), and if smoking-cessation rates could be calculated. Fifteen studies met inclusion criteria. Fourteen of the studies targeted smoking, and one targeted spit (chewing) tobacco. Five studies were controlled, and 10 were uncontrolled. One of the controlled studies (chewing tobacco) and eight of the uncontrolled studies were conducted in the United States. Findings of the uncontrolled U.S. studies suggest that pharmacists can deliver smoking-cessation services. Three of the controlled studies found statistically significant differences between the pharmacist-based intervention and the control group, and the trend in the other two studies was toward the effectiveness of the pharmacist-delivered intervention. Only six of the 15 studies reviewed used biochemical measures to verify self-reported cessation. The uncontrolled and controlled studies reviewed demonstrate that pharmacists can deliver tobacco-cessation interventions, and the evidence strongly suggests that they are effective in helping smokers to quit. Future studies conducted in the United States that are well controlled and include biochemical verification of smoking status are needed to provide definitive confirmation that pharmacist-delivered interventions are effective for smoking cessation. With the availability and expanded training of pharmacists, this is an opportune time for testing and disseminating evidence-based research evaluating the effectiveness of pharmacist-delivered tobacco-cessation services.Pharmacotherapy 08/2007; 27(7):1040-51. DOI:10.1592/phco.27.7.1040 · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To implement and evaluate the impact of a semester-long, online, 1-credit elective course designed to promote tobacco cessation counseling proficiency among health professions students. Online technology was used to create an elective course devoted to tobacco cessation, modeled closely after the Rx for Change curriculum. Students from pharmacy, nursing, and other health disciplines enrolled in the course. Students completed pretraining and posttraining survey instruments that assessed their self-reported skills and ability to counsel patients for tobacco cessation. Overall ability to counsel for tobacco cessation and each of the "5 A's" approach for comprehensive counseling (ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange) increased significantly from pretraining to posttraining (p < 0.001). Self-efficacy also increased from 2.2 to 4.1 (p < 0.001; on a 5-point scale). This study demonstrated that an online tobacco cessation course improved student-reported ability and skills to counsel patients on tobacco cessation.American journal of pharmaceutical education 03/2010; 74(2):36. DOI:10.5688/aj740236 · 1.19 Impact Factor