Chronic chromium exposure-induced changes in testicular histoarchitecture are associated with oxidative stress: study in a non-human primate (Macaca radiata Geoffroy).
ABSTRACT Reproductive toxicity of chromium is in dispute despite positive findings in rodents. Recently we reported epididymal toxicity of hexavalent chromium (CrVI) in bonnet monkeys and in this paper we report its testicular toxicity.
Adult monkeys (Macaca radiata) were given drinking water containing CrVI (100, 200, 400 p.p.m.) for 6 months and testes were removed for ultrastructural and biochemical analyses.
CrVI treatment disrupted spermatogenesis, leading to accumulation of prematurely released spermatocytes, spermatids and uni- and multinucleate giant cells in the lumen of seminiferous tubules. Transmission electron microscopy revealed granulation of chromatin and vacuolation between acrosomal cap and manchette microtubules of elongated spermatids and in the Golgi area of round spermatids. Pachytene spermatocytes had fragmented chromatin and swollen mitochondria with collapsed cristae. Spermatocytes and spermatogonia in the basal compartment were unaffected. Macrophages containing phagocytosed sperm and dense inclusions in Sertoli cells were seen. Specific activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and concentrations of the non-enzymatic antioxidants glutathione, vitamins A, C and E decreased, while concentrations of H(2)O(2) and hydroxyl radicals increased in the testis of chromium-treated monkeys. Withdrawal of chromium treatment for 6 months normalized spermatogenesis and the status of pro- and antioxidants in the testis.
CrVI disrupts spermatogenesis by inducing free radical toxicity, and supplementation of antioxidant vitamins may be beneficial to the affected subjects.
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ABSTRACT: Prolonged and strenuous exercise has been proposed as a possible source of male-factor infertility. Forced intensive swimming has also been identified as one source of a dysfunctional male reproduction system. The present study evaluated the possible protective role of α-lipoic acid and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on intensive swimming-induced germ-cell depletion in adult male rats. Forced exhaustive swimming of 1 hr/day, 6 days/week for 8 consecutive weeks resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in epididymal sperm; testicular androgenic enzyme activities; and plasma and intra-testicular testosterone; and produced different types of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium cycle. Conversely, plasma corticosterone levels and sperm-head abnormalities increased. Western-blot analysis showed a considerable decrease in testicular StAR protein expression whereas reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis showed no significant change in cytochrome P450scc (Cyp11a1) gene expression. Significant (P < 0.05) elevation in testicular reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content versus reduction in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, and caspase-3 activities along with a depletion in the glutathione pool, mitochondrial membrane potential (▵ψm), and intracellular ATP generation. A considerable level of DNA damage in testicular spermatogenic cells were also noted following forced extensive swimming. Alpha-lipoic acid and NAC supplementation prevented the swimming-induced testicular spermatogenic and steroidogenic disorders by lowering ROS generation. We therefore conclude that intensive forced swimming causes germ-cell depletion through the generation of ROS and depletion of steroidogenesis in the testis, which can be protected by the co-administration of α-lipoic acid and NAC. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Molecular Reproduction and Development 09/2014; 81(9). DOI:10.1002/mrd.22354 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Occupational and environmental exposure to potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), a hexavalent chromium compound, can result in liver damage associated with oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the antioxidant curcumin (400 mg/kg b.w.) on the K2Cr2O7-induced injury, with special emphasis on ascitic fluid accumulation and oxidative phosphorylation mitochondrial enzymes and the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels in isolated mitochondria from livers of rats treated with K2Cr2O7 (15 mg/kg b.w.). Thus, curcumin attenuated the ascites generation, prevented the decrease in the activities of aconitase and F1F0 ATPase, and maintained the ATP levels. The activity of complex II was not completely reestablished by curcumin, whereas complexes III and IV activities were unchanged.Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology 11/2014; 28(11). DOI:10.1002/jbt.21595 · 1.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) has been recognized as flavor enhancer that adversely affects male reproductive systems. The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential protective role of vitamin E (vit E) or selenium against MSG induced oxidative stress and histopathological changes in testis tissues of rats. Mature male Wistar rats weighing 150-200 g BW were allocated to evenly twelve groups each group of ten animals, the first group was maintained as control group, the 2nd, 3rd and 4th groups were administered MSG in three different dose levels (Low, med and high) (6, 17.5 and 60 mg/Kg BW), the 5th and 6th groups were given vit E in two doses (Low and high) (150 and 200 mg/Kg), the 7th and 8th groups were administered selenium in two doses (Low and high) (0.25 and 1 mg/Kg) daily via gavage for a period of 30 days. Meanwhile the 9th and 10th groups were given combinations of MSG (high dose) and vit E while, the 11th and 12th groups were given MSG (high dose) plus selenium in two recommended doses for each one. Monosodium glutamate caused an elevation in lipid peroxidation level parallel with significant decline in SOD, CAT as well as GPx activities in testis tissues. Administration of vit E or selenium to MSG-treated groups declined lipid peroxidation, increased SOD, CAT, GPx activities. Selenium or vit E significantly reduced MSG induced histopathological changes by the entire restoration of the histological structures and the testicular antioxidant status to great extent in treated rats. In conclusion, supplementation of selenium or vit E could ameliorate the MSG induced testicular toxicity to great extent and reduce the oxidative stress on testis tissues.Toxicology Reports 01/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.toxrep.2014.10.002