Healing following tooth extraction in cyclosporine-fed rats.
ABSTRACT Healing after tooth extraction was studied in rats treated with cyclosporine-A (CSA) for four weeks. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of three groups of 20 rats each. The maxillary right molars were extracted from two groups; the third group served as a non-extraction control. The non-extraction group and one extraction group (vehicle control) received the solvent mineral oil daily, and the other extraction group received 15 mg/kg CSA in mineral oil. Five rats from each group were killed 5, 10, 14 and 28 days after extraction and samples analyzed histologically. On days 5 and 10, bone volume was significantly lower and marrow volume significantly higher in both extraction groups than in the non-extraction group. The fractional-formation surfaces were significantly lower in the extraction groups than in the non-extraction group on day 5 only. Osteoid volume was significantly higher in the extraction vehicle control group than in the other two groups on days 10 and 14; however, the osteoid volume was higher in the CSA group than in the other two groups on day 28. On days 14 and 28, bone volume was lower and marrow volume higher in the CSA group than in the extraction vehicle control and non-extraction groups. On day 28, bony surface areas were significantly greater in the CSA group than in the extraction vehicle control and non-extraction groups. Soft-tissue evaluation showed significantly greater epithelial areas, connective tissue areas and total tissue areas in the CSA group than in the extraction vehicle control group on day 28, but not on day 14. These data suggest that CSA may influence healing of both the gingival tissue and the alveolar bony sockets in the tooth-extraction wound. Further detailed study is needed to identify the mechanisms responsible.
Article: Conversion of immunosuppressive monotherapy from cyclosporin a to tacrolimus reverses bone loss in rats.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tacrolimus is used for transplant patients with refractory graft rejection and those with intolerance to cyclosporin (CsA), without the disfiguring adverse effects frequently attributed to CsA therapy. Since we have shown that CsA-associated bone loss can also affect alveolar bone, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of conversion of monotherapy from CsA to tacrolimus on alveolar bone loss in rats. Groups of rats were treated with either CsA (10 mg/kg/day, s.c.), tacrolimus (1 mg/kg/day, s.c.), or drug vehicle for 60 and 120 days, and an additional group received CsA for 60 days followed by conversion to tacrolimus for a further 60-day period. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), tartrate-resistent acid phosphatase (TRAP-5b), calcium (Ca(2+)), interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) concentrations were evaluated in the serum. Analyses of bone volume, bone surface, number of osteblasts, and osteoclasts were performed. Treatment with CsA for either 60 or 120 days was associated with bone resorption, represented by lower bone volume and increased number of osteoclasts; serum BALP, TRAP-5b, IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha were also higher in these animals. After conversion from CsA to tacrolimus, all the altered serum markers returned to control values in addition to a significant increase of bone volume and a lower number of osteoclasts. This study shows that conversion from CsA to tacrolimus therapy leads to a reversal of the CsA-induced bone loss, which can probably be mediated by downregulation of IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha production.Calcified Tissue International 09/2007; 81(2):114-23. · 2.38 Impact Factor