Breast cancer predisposing alleles in Poland.
ABSTRACT Mutant alleles of several genes in the DNA repair pathway have been found to predispose women to breast cancer. From a public health perspective, the importance of a given allele in a population is determined by the frequency of the allele and by the relative risk of breast cancer that it confers. In Poland founder alleles of the BRCA1, CHEK2 and NBS1 genes have been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, but the relative contribution of each of these alleles to the overall breast cancer burden has not yet been determined. We screened 2012 unselected cases of breast cancer and 4000 population controls for 7 different mutations in these genes. Overall, a mutation was found in 12% of the cases and in 6% of the controls. Mutations in BRCA1 and CHEK2 contributed in approximately equal measure to the burden of breast cancer in Poland. A BRCA1 mutation was present in 3% of the cases. The missense BRCA1 mutation C61G was associated with a higher odds ratio for breast cancer (OR=15) than were either of the truncating BRCA1 mutations 4153delA (OR=2.0) and 5382insC (OR=6.2). In contrast, a higher odds ratio was seen for truncating CHEK2 mutations (OR=2.1) than for the missense mutation I157T (OR=1.4). This study suggests that cancer risks may be specific for particular alleles of a susceptibility gene and that these different risks should be taken into account by genetic counselors.
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ABSTRACT: Background:To establish the contribution of eight founder alleles in three DNA damage repair genes (BRCA1, CHEK2 and NBS1) to prostate cancer in Poland, and to measure the impact of these variants on survival among patients.Methods:Three thousand seven hundred fifty men with prostate cancer and 3956 cancer-free controls were genotyped for three founder alleles in BRCA1 (5382insC, 4153delA, C61G), four alleles in CHEK2 (1100delC, IVS2+1G>A, del5395, I157T), and one allele in NBS1 (657del5).Results:The NBS1 mutation was detected in 53 of 3750 unselected cases compared with 23 of 3956 (0.6%) controls (odds ratio (OR)=2.5; P=0.0003). A CHEK2 mutation was seen in 383 (10.2%) unselected cases and in 228 (5.8%) controls (OR=1.9; P<0.0001). Mutation of BRCA1 (three mutations combined) was not associated with the risk of prostate cancer (OR=0.9; P=0.8). In a subgroup analysis, the 4153delA mutation was associated with early-onset (age 60 years) prostate cancer (OR=20.3, P=0.004). The mean follow-up was 54 months. Mortality was significantly worse for carriers of a NBS1 mutation than for non-carriers (HR=1.85; P=0.008). The 5-year survival for men with an NBS1 mutation was 49%, compared with 72% for mutation-negative cases.Conclusion:A mutation in NBS1 predisposes to aggressive prostate cancer. These data are relevant to the prospect of adapting personalised medicine to prostate cancer prevention and treatment.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 13 November 2012; doi:10.1038/bjc.2012.486 www.bjcancer.com.British Journal of Cancer 11/2012; DOI:10.1038/bjc.2012.486 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The cell cycle checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2) gene I157T variant may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, but it is unclear whether the evidence is sufficient to recommend testing for the mutation in clinical practice. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Elsevier and Springer for relevant articles published before Nov 2011. Summary odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) incidence rates were calculated using a random-effects model with STATA (version 10.0) software. A total of fifteen case-control studies, including 19,621 cases and 27,001 controls based on the search criteria, were included for analysis. A significant association was found between carrying the CHEK2 I157T variant and increased risk of unselected breast cancer (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.31-1.66, P < 0.0001), familial breast cancer (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.16-1.89, P < 0.0001), and early-onset breast cancer (OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.29-1.66, P < 0.0001). We found an even stronger significant association between the CHEK2 I157T C variant and increased risk of lobular type breast tumors (OR = 4.17, 95% CI = 2.89-6.03, P < 0.0001). Our research indicates that the CHEK2 I157T variant may be another important genetic mutation which increases risk of breast cancer, especially the lobular type.Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 04/2012; 13(4):1355-60. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.4.1355 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of our study was to establish the frequency and distribution of the four most common BRCA1 mutations in Polish general population and in a series of breast cancer patients. Analysis of the population frequency of 5382insC (c.5266dupC), 300T >G (p.181T >G), 185delAG (c.68_69delAG) and 3819del5 (c.3700_3704del5) mutations of the BRCA1 gene were performed on a group of respectively 16,849, 13,462, 12,485 and 3923 anonymous samples collected at birth in seven Polish provinces. The patient group consisted of 1845 consecutive female breast cancer cases. The most frequent BRCA1 mutation in the general population was 5382insC found in 29 out of 16,849 samples (0.17%). 300T >G and 3819del5 mutations were found in respectively 11 of 13,462 (0.08%) and four of 3923 (0.1%) samples. The population prevalence for combined Polish founder 5382insC and 300T >G mutations was 0.25% (1/400). The frequencies of 5382insC and 300T >G carriers among consecutive breast cancer cases were, respectively, 1.9% (35/1845) and 1.2% (18/1486). Comparing these data with the population frequency, we calculated the relative risk of breast cancer for 5382insC mutation at OR = 17 and for 300T >G mutation at OR = 26. Our results, based on large population studies, show high frequencies of founder 5382insC and 300T >G BRCA1 mutations in Polish general population. Carriage of one of these mutations is connected with a very high relative risk of breast cancer.Journal of applied genetics 04/2011; 52(3):325-30. DOI:10.1007/s13353-011-0040-6 · 1.90 Impact Factor