Soyfood intake and breast cancer survival: A followup of the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study

Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Center for Health Service Research, Vanderbilt University, Medical Center East, Suite 6000, Nashville, TN 37232-8300, USA.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment (Impact Factor: 3.94). 08/2005; 92(1):11-7. DOI: 10.1007/s10549-004-6019-9
Source: PubMed


Soy and its constituents have been shown in many in vivo and in vitro studies and in some epidemiological studies to have anti-cancer effects. Some soy constituents, however, also stimulate cell proliferation, which has raised concerns in promoting soy intake among breast cancer survivors. To investigate whether soy intake may be associated with breast cancer survival, we evaluated data from a cohort of 1459 breast cancer patients who participated in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study between 1996 and 1998. Usual soy food intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. The median follow-up time for this cohort of women was 5.2 years. We found that soy intake prior to cancer diagnosis was unrelated to disease-free breast cancer survival (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]=0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73-1.33 for the highest tertile compared to the lowest tertile). The association between soy protein intake and breast cancer survival did not differ according to ER/PR status, tumor stage, age at diagnosis, body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), or menopausal status. Additionally, the soy-survival association did not appear to vary according to XbaI or PvuII polymorphisms in ER-alpha, or C(14206)T, G(25652)A, or A(50766)G polymorphisms in ER-beta. These data suggest that soyfoods do not have an adverse effect on breast cancer survival.

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    • "Consumption of soybean and its products is strongly associated with the reduced prevalence of diabetes, CVDs, Alzheimer’s disease, and cancer and linked to longevity [10], [11]. The associated mechanisms have been under intense investigation but remain to be defined. "
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    ABSTRACT: We and others have recently shown that soyasaponins abundant in soybeans can decrease inflammation by suppressing the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB)-mediated inflammation. However, the exact molecular mechanisms by which soyasaponins inhibit the NF-kB pathway have not been established. In this study in macrophages, soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of inflammatory marker prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to a similar extent as the NF-kB inhibitor (BAY117082). Soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) also suppressed the LPS-induced expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), another inflammatory marker, in a dose-dependent manner by inhibiting NF-kB activation. In defining the associated mechanisms, we found that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) blunted the LPS-induced IKKα/β phosphorylation, IkB phosphorylation and degradation, and NF-kB p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. In studying the upstream targets of soyasaponins on the NF-kB pathway, we found that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) suppressed the LPS-induced activation of PI3K/Akt similarly as the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, which alone blocked the LPS-induced activation of NF-kB. Additionally, soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) reduced the LPS-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to the same extent as the anti-oxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine, which alone inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation of Akt, IKKα/β, IkBα, and p65, transactivity of NF-kB, PGE2 production, and malondialdehyde production. Finally, our results show that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) elevated SOD activity and the GSH/GSSG ratio. Together, these results show that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) can blunt inflammation by inhibiting the ROS-mediated activation of the PI3K/Akt/NF-kB pathway.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e107655. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0107655 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "In particular, the authors note that few investigators have formally evaluated the effects of soy intake on survival among women diagnosed with breast cancer. For example, one study conducted among a cohort of women with breast cancer in Shanghai (Boyapati et al, 2005) observed no association between consumption of isoflavones at diagnosis and subsequent mortality. In contrast, in a recent publication by our own group (Fink et al, 2007a) a reduction in all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality was observed among a cohort of breast cancer survivors in the United States, who reported consuming higher levels of total flavonoids, and particularly flavones. "
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    ABSTRACT: The BJC is owned by Cancer Research UK, a charity dedicated to understanding the causes, prevention and treatment of cancer and to making sure that the best new treatments reach patients in the clinic as quickly as possible. The journal reflects these aims. It was founded more than fifty years ago and, from the start, its far-sighted mission was to encourage communication of the very best cancer research from laboratories and clinics in all countries. The breadth of its coverage, its editorial independence and it consistent high standards, have made BJC one of the world's premier general cancer journals. Its increasing popularity is reflected by a steadily rising impact factor.
    British Journal of Cancer 02/2008; 98(1):2-3. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6604182 · 4.84 Impact Factor
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    • "Few studies have investigated the effects of soy intake in women with breast cancer. Among Chinese women in Shanghai, usual soy food intake before breast cancer diagnosis was unrelated to disease-free breast cancer survival after a median follow-up of 5.2 years, but information on tamoxifen use was not included (Boyapati et al, 2005). To address the concern that soy may negate the effect of tamoxifen (Messina et al, 2006), we investigated and found no relationship between serum levels of tamoxifen or its metabolites and self-reported intake of soy or serum levels of isoflavones among a population-based sample of Asian-American women with breast cancer (Wu et al, 2007b). "
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    ABSTRACT: Most of the early studies published on soy and breast cancer were not designed to test the effect of soy; the assessment of soy intake was usually crude and few potential confounders were considered in the analysis. In this review, we focused on studies with relatively complete assessment of dietary soy exposure in the targeted populations and appropriate consideration for potential confounders in the statistical analysis of study data. Meta-analysis of the 8 (1 cohort, 7 case-control) studies conducted in high-soy-consuming Asians show a significant trend of decreasing risk with increasing soy food intake. Compared to the lowest level of soy food intake (<or=5 mg isoflavones per day), risk was intermediate (OR=0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.78-0.98) among those with modest ( approximately 10 mg isoflavones per day) intake and lowest (OR=0.71, 95% CI=0.60-0.85) among those with high intake (>or=20 mg isoflavones per day). In contrast, soy intake was unrelated to breast cancer risk in studies conducted in the 11 low-soy-consuming Western populations whose average highest and lowest soy isoflavone intake levels were around 0.8 and 0.15 mg per day, respectively. Thus, the evidence to date, based largely on case-control studies, suggest that soy food intake in the amount consumed in Asian populations may have protective effects against breast cancer.
    British Journal of Cancer 01/2008; 98(1):9-14. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6604145 · 4.84 Impact Factor
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