Diagnostic utility of immunohistochemistry in morphologically difficult prostate cancer: review of current literature.
ABSTRACT Varma M & Jasani B (2005) Histopathology47, 1-16 Diagnostic utility of immunohistochemistry in morphologically difficult prostate cancer: review of current literatureImmunohistochemistry is widely used to distinguish prostate cancer from benign mimics and to establish the prostatic origin of poorly differentiated carcinoma. We critically review the recent advances in prostate cancer immunohistochemistry, including the introduction of newer basal cell markers such as p63 and the discovery of the overexpression of alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase (AMACR) in prostate cancer. The description of newer urothelial markers to aid the distinction of prostate cancer from urothelial carcinoma is also presented together with refinements in the quality control of PSA and PSAP immunostaining. Although AMACR is a useful immunohistochemical marker for prostate cancer, it has significant limitations. These limitations are discussed and the need for interpreting AMACR immunoreactivity in the appropriate morphological context and in conjunction with basal call markers is emphasized. We also describe the utility of an immunohistochemical panel composed of PSA, PSAP and high molecular weight cytokeratin for distinguishing poorly differentiated prostate cancer from high-grade urothelial carcinoma. A morphological differential diagnosis based selection of immunohistochemical markers is highlighted as a novel approach in the diagnosis of prostate cancer in routine surgical pathology practice.
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ABSTRACT: Immunohistochemistry plays a pivotal role in cancer differential diagnostics. To identify the primary tumour from a metastasis specimen remains a significant challenge, despite the availability of an increasing number of antibodies. The aim of the present study was to provide evidence-based data on the diagnostic power of antibodies used frequently for clinical differential diagnostics. A tissue microarray cohort comprising 940 tumour samples, of which 502 were metastatic lesions, representing tumours from 18 different organs and four non-localized cancer types, was analysed using immunohistochemistry with 27 well-established antibodies used in clinical differential diagnostics. Few antibodies, e.g. prostate-specific antigen and thyroglobulin, showed a cancer type-related sensitivity and specificity of more than 95%. A majority of the antibodies showed a low degree of sensitivity and specificity for defined cancer types. Combinations of antibodies provided limited added value for differential diagnostics of cancer types. The results from analysing 27 diagnostic antibodies on consecutive sections of 940 defined tumours provide a unique repository of data that can empower a more optimal use of clinical immunohistochemistry. Our results highlight the benefit of immunohistochemistry and the unmet need for novel markers to improve differential diagnostics of cancer.Histopathology 01/2014; 64(2):293-305. · 2.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Differentiating between sarcoidosis as an autonomous disease and sarcoid-like reactions requires considerable efforts. The epithelioid cell granuloma is not equivalent to sarcoidosis because it may be identified in a number of infectious and noninfectious disorders, including neoplastic diseases. At the current state of knowledge, accurate distinction between different causes of epithelioid cell granulomas is in many cases not possible. Despite being characteristic of sarcoidosis and sarcoid-like reactions, the epithelioid cell granuloma is not their synonym, as numerous other causes can give rise to such a type of granulomatous infiltrate. Its etiology should be sought through careful additional investigations, including the genetic signature of both conditions.Sarcoid-like reactions may be grouped generally into several subtypes. The differentiation between each one of them requires a certain combination of diagnostic tests. The major objective of these tests is to exclude or to prove the presence of an infectious, tumoral, or immunogenic antigen on the one hand, and to characterize the genetic profile of the affected patients (for example, sarcoidosis-specific genes) on the other. Only thus may one accurately differentiate between the two pathologic conditions described earlier in the abstract.The clear differentiation between sarcoidosis as a separate disease and sarcoid-like pathologies leads to the more precise clarification of the final diagnosis, which may in turn allow for a more appropriate therapy and improvement in the quality of life of the patients. Equating sarcoid granulomas with sarcoidosis can lead to serious consequences in a number of patients. Sadly enough, after scrutinizing the current available data in the world literature, one cannot find criteria to allow such distinction in a high percentage of the investigated cases.This critical review provides a completely new pathogenetic and diagnostic algorithm, helping in the differentiation between the disease sarcoidosis and the sarcoid-like pathologies with different etiology. An update on the inclusion criteria from the ATS/ERS/WASOG (American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society/World Association of Sarcoidosis and other Granulomatous Disorders) statement (which at the current state of knowledge seems to be ineffective) for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis is also suggested.In conclusion, molecular mimicry may be seen as the main pathogenic generator not only of sarcoidosis but also of sarcoid-like reactions. A completely new and exact definition of the notion of or the sarcoidosis disease itself will be possible only after 1. defining the genetic risk for the development of sarcoidosis as an autonomous disease and supplementing the sarcoidosis consensus of ATS/ERS/WASOG from 1999 with this important information, and 2. defining the notion of a sarcoid-like reaction and its subforms.Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift 03/2014;
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ABSTRACT: This study was performed on a series of prostate needle biopsies with diagnosis of atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP) in order to verify to what extent the application of immunohistochemistry (IHC) for p504s and p63 markers, as well as expert consultation by still images could affect the diagnosis. The results of these two methods were compared. IHC staining for p504s and p63 was performed on sections from 42 patients with a primary diagnosis of ASAP. Meanwhile, digital still images were taken from H&E stained slides of cases and were sent to an expert uropathologist, blind to IHC staining interpretations. The results of IHC staining were compared with diagnostic interpretations of the consultant pathologist. In 13 cases the focus of concern was not detectable on IHC slides. In the remaining 29 cases, IHC showed a benign and malignant expression pattern in 17 and 9 patients respectively. In 3 cases, IHC findings were inconclusive and retained the diagnosis of ASAP. The consultant pathologist diagnosed 11 cases of benign and 7 cases of malignant processes. He retained the diagnosis of ASAP in 11 cases. There was high concordance between the results of IHC and electronic consultation in the group of benign cases. All 11 cases with the diagnosis of benignancy by electronic consultation showed a benign IHC pattern. Among 7 cases with the diagnosis of malignancy by the consultant pathologist, 5 were classified as malignant, 1 as benign and 1 as inconclusive IHC groups. Considering problems with IHC staining of prostate needle biopsy, including loss of focus of interest, expert consultation using still images can provide very useful diagnostic information. This approach can be used as an adjunct to other diagnostic activities like IHC or even as an independent source of information to reach more accurate diagnoses in ASAP cases, particularly in institutions with limited resources.Annals of diagnostic pathology 01/2014;