Adoption of Spironolactone Therapy for Older Patients With Heart Failure and Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction in the United States, 1998–2001
ABSTRACT Concerns have been raised about the appropriateness of spironolactone use in some patients with heart failure. We studied the adoption of spironolactone therapy after publication of the Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study (RALES) in national cohorts of older patients hospitalized for heart failure.
This is a study of serial cross-sectional samples of Medicare beneficiaries > or =65 years old discharged after hospitalization for the primary diagnosis of heart failure and with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The first sample was discharged before (April 1998 to March 1999, n=9758) and the second sample after (July 2000 to June 2001, n=9468) publication of RALES in September 1999. We assessed spironolactone prescriptions at hospital discharge in patient groups defined by enrollment criteria for the trial. Using multivariable logistic regression, we identified factors independently associated with prescriptions not meeting these criteria. Spironolactone use increased >7-fold (3.0% to 21.3% P<0.0001) after RALES. Of patients meeting enrollment criteria, 24.1% received spironolactone, as compared with 17.4% of those not meeting the criteria. Of all prescriptions after RALES, 30.9% were provided to patients not meeting enrollment criteria. Spironolactone was prescribed to 22.8% of patients with a serum potassium value > or =5.0 mmol/L, to 14.1% with a serum creatinine value > or =2.5 mg/dL, and to 17.3% with severe renal dysfunction (estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 mL.min(-1).1.73 m(-2)). In multivariable analyses, factors associated with prescriptions not meeting enrollment criteria included advanced age, noncardiovascular comorbidities, discharge to skilled nursing facilities, and care provided by physicians without board certification.
Spironolactone prescriptions increased markedly after the publication of RALES, and many treated patients were at risk for hyperkalemia. Simultaneously, many patients who might have benefited were not treated. These findings demonstrate the importance of balancing efforts to enhance use among appropriate patients and minimizing use in patients at risk for adverse events.
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ABSTRACT: To determine the long-term mortality of patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTEACS) that are eligible versus those not eligible in randomized controlled trials (RCT), and how each exclusion criteria is associated with outcome. Common causes of exclusion in six published RCT on intravenous antithrombotic therapy were prospectively assessed in a cohort of 452 consecutive patients with NSTEACS that were followed for up to 3 years. Forty-one percent of patients had one or more exclusion criteria establishing the ineligible group. These patients were older, more likely to have coronary risk factors, ischemic ECG changes, heart failure at admission, higher creatinine levels and a lower ejection fraction than eligible patients. There were no differences between both groups in the antithrombotic treatment received or in the performance of revascularization procedures during hospitalization or in the prescription of antiplatelet treatment and beta-blockers at discharge. Cumulative 3-year mortality rate was 25% in ineligible patients compared to 9% in eligible patients (p<0.001). The hazard ratio (HR) of mortality was of 9.1 (95% CI: 4.5-18.7) for severe renal dysfunction; 6.0 (3.3-11.4) for concomitant non-vascular diseases; 3.0 (1.6-5.5) for contraindications to anticoagulation; 2.5 (1.1-5.7) for heart failure; and 2.3 (1.1-4.6) for prior cerebrovascular disease. After adjusting for baseline differences, ineligible patients had a HR of total mortality of 1.88 (1.04-3.38), and of cardiac mortality of 2 (1.01-3.98). Patients with NSTEACS who are ineligible in RCT have a higher risk profile and a two-fold adjusted long-term mortality than eligible patients, especially those with comorbid conditions and those with contraindications to anticoagulation.International journal of cardiology 02/2008; 124(1):86-91. DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2006.12.027 · 6.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The heart failure exhibits a significant higher incidence and prevalence in the elderly and the constant increase of old subjects support the forecast of a sig- nificant increase of new cases of heart failure in the near future. In the general population, ischemic heart disease and hypertension are the most common causes of heart failure. However, while heart failure from ischemic heart dis- ease is, in general, primarily associated with left ventricular systolic dysfunc- tion, hypertension, especially in the elderly, is more often responsible for heart failure with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction - better defined as heart fail- ure with preserved left ventricular systolic function. In the present article, var- ious clinical criteria for the diagnosis of heart failure are compared with a spe- cific interest in their use in geriatric subjects. Moreover, data regarding treat- ment and prognosis of heart failure with left ventricular preserved systolic function and hypertension are presented.
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ABSTRACT: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole increases the risk of hyperkalemia when used with spironolactone. We examined whether this drug combination is associated with an increased risk of sudden death, a consequence of severe hyperkalemia. We conducted a population-based nested case-control study involving Ontario residents aged 66 years or older who received spironolactone between Apr. 1, 1994, and Dec. 31, 2011. Within this group, we identified cases as patients who died of sudden death within 14 days after receiving a prescription for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or one of the other study antibiotics (amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin or nitrofurantoin). For each case, we identified up to 4 controls matched by age and sex. We determined the odds ratio (OR) for the association between sudden death and exposure to each antibiotic relative to amoxicillin, adjusted for predictors of sudden death using a disease risk index. Of the 11 968 patients who died of sudden death while receiving spironolactone, we identified 328 whose death occurred within 14 days after antibiotic exposure. Compared with amoxicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was associated with a more than twofold increase in the risk of sudden death (adjusted OR 2.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.55-3.90). Ciprofloxacin (adjusted OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.02-2.38) and nitrofurantoin (adjusted OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.03-2.79) were also associated with an increased risk of sudden death, although the risk with nitrofurantoin was not apparent in a sensitivity analysis. The antibiotic trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was associated with an increased risk of sudden death among older patients taking spironolactone. When clinically appropriate, alternative antibiotics should be considered in these patients. © 8872147 Canada Inc.Canadian Medical Association Journal 02/2015; 187(4). DOI:10.1503/cmaj.140816 · 5.81 Impact Factor